| Unique human brain area identified that separates us from monkeys!

Unique Human Brain Area Identified that Separates Us From Monkeys ~ Jeremy Dean, PsyBlog.

 

Researchers at Oxford University have pinpointed an area of the brain that is uniquely human–perhaps part of what gives us our higher cognitive powers and separates us from monkeys.

The area, in red above, part of the ventrolateral (at the front and side) frontal cortex, is likely to help us plan for the future, learn things from others, behave flexibly, along with other complex tasks.

Post image for Unique Human Brain Area Identified that Separates Us From Monkeys

First study to compare human and monkey brains with modern MRI methods reaches fascinating conclusions.

To reach these conclusions, Neubert et al. (2014) compared brain imaging–both structural and functional–from healthy human volunteers with that from macaque monkeys.

This allowed them to build a picture both of the brain’s structure and how the different areas interact.

Professor Matthew Rushworth, one of the study’s authors, likened the brain to a mosaic of tiles:

“The brain is a mosaic of interlinked areas. We wanted to look at this very important region of the frontal part of the brain and see how many tiles there are and where they are placed.

 

We also looked at the connections of each tile–how they are wired up to the rest of the brain–as it is these connections that determine the information that can reach that component part and the influence that part can have on other brain regions.”

The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was then divided up into 12 areas, 11 of which were connected up in very similar ways in both humans and macaque monkeys. This shows some of the striking similarities between the brains of humans and monkeys.

The 12th area, though, in the lateral frontal pole, had no equivalent in the macaque monkeys, and may represent a uniquely human aspect of our brains.

The study’s lead author, Franz-Xaver Neubert, said:

“We have established an area in human frontal cortex which does not seem to have an equivalent in the monkey at all. This area has been identified with strategic planning and decision making as well as ‘multi-tasking.’”

The researchers also found that the auditory areas of the human brain were very well connected with the prefrontal cortex in comparison with the monkeys. This may underlie our advanced language skills.

Image credit: University of Oxford

| Mandela will never, ever be your minstrel!

Mandela will never, ever be your minstrel. Musa Okwonga.

Dear revisionists, Mandela will never, ever be your minstrel. Over the next few days you will try so, so hard to make him something he was not, and you will fail. You will try to smooth him, to sandblast him, to take away his Malcolm X. You will try to hide his anger from view. Right now, you are anxiously pacing the corridors of your condos and country estates, looking for the right words, the right tributes, the right-wing tributes. You will say that Mandela was not about race. You will say that Mandela was not about politics. You will say that Mandela was about nothing but one love, you will try to reduce him to a lilting reggae tune. “Let’s get together, and feel alright.” Yes, you will do that.

 
You will make out that apartheid was just some sort of evil mystical space disease that suddenly fell from the heavens and settled on all of us, had us all, black or white, in its thrall, until Mandela appeared from the ether to redeem us. You will try to make Mandela a Magic Negro and you will fail. You will say that Mandela stood above all for forgiveness whilst scuttling swiftly over the details of the perversity that he had the grace to forgive.
 
You will try to make out that apartheid was some horrid spontaneous historical aberration, and not the logical culmination of centuries of imperial arrogance. Yes, you will try that too. You will imply or audaciously state that its evils ended the day Mandela stepped out of jail. You will fold your hands and say the blacks have no-one to blame now but themselves.
 
Well, try hard as you like, and you’ll fail. Because Mandela was about politics and he was about race and he was about freedom and he was even about force, and he did what he felt he had to do and given the current economic inequality in South Africa he might even have died thinking he didn’t do nearly enough of it. And perhaps the greatest tragedy of Mandela’s life isn’t that he spent almost thirty years jailed by well-heeled racists who tried to shatter millions of spirits through breaking his soul, but that there weren’t or aren’t nearly enough people like him.
 
Because that’s South Africa now, a country long ago plunged headfirst so deep into the sewage of racial hatred that, for all Mandela’s efforts, it is still retching by the side of the swamp. Just imagine if Cape Town were London.  Imagine seeing two million white people living in shacks and mud huts along the M25 as you make your way into the city, where most of the biggest houses and biggest jobs are occupied by a small, affluent to wealthy group of black people.  There are no words for the resentment that would still simmer there.
 
Nelson Mandela was not a god, floating elegantly above us and saving us. He was utterly, thoroughly human, and he did all he did in spite of people like you. There is no need to name you because you know who you are, we know who you are, and you know we know that too. You didn’t break him in life, and you won’t shape him in death. You will try, wherever you are, and you will fail.
 

Musa Okwonga is a poet, author, sportswriter, broadcaster, musician, communications adviser and commentator on current affairs, including culture, politics, sport, race and sexuality.  A scholarship student at Eton College, Musa studied law at Oxford University and then trained as a solicitor in the City before leaving the legal profession to pursue a career as a poet. 

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| George Galloway asked ‘ARE YOU RACIST?’ at Oxford Union!

| George Galloway asked ‘ARE YOU RACIST?’ at Oxford Union! ~ YouTube.
Filmed on Monday 14th October 2013.

George Galloway is asked ‘Are you a racist?’ by an Oxford student.

In a passionate reply George Galloway describes his experiences as an undercover agent working with Jews for the ANC against apartheid in South Africa and, in a no-nonsense reference to the illegal Israeli occupation, forcefully responds:

“Jews don’t have to be on the side of Apartheid – They can stand up against it!”

He continues that he will never debate with a supporter of any form of apartheid because apartheid is the very worst form of racism and fascism there is.


ABOUT GEORGE GALLOWAY:
Few contemporary politicians have courted as much controversy as George Galloway. A Labour MP from 1987 to 2003, he was an outspoken critic of the policies of Tony Blair and New Labour, in particular the decision to invade Iraq. Fiery comments such as “the best thing British troops can do is to refuse to obey illegal orders” saw Galloway expelled from the Labour Party. But Galloway returned to the political fray by founding the Respect Party and winning Bethnal Green and Bow in the 2005 General Election. Mr Galloway re-entered Parliament this March [2013] as MP for Bradford West and has provoked controversy and criticism with his comments on the rape charges against Wikileaks’ Julian Assange. More recently, he has ventured into film-making: “Some people make a living, others make a killing” – with an exclusive new documentary on Tony Blair which he claims will break new ground.

| George Galloway to target Tony Blair in upcoming documentary! http://wp.me/p1xXtb-36t via @truthrazor
ABOUT THE OXFORD UNION SOCIETY:
The Union is the world’s most prestigious debating society, with an unparalleled reputation for bringing international guests and speakers to Oxford. It has been established for 190 years, aiming to promote debate and discussion not just in Oxford University, but across the globe.

COURTESY: OxfordUnion
URL: http://youtu.be/8jgZHlV9UMI

| PALESTINIANS HAVE A GENUINE GRIEVANCE:

The CORE issues of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict are the
COLLECTIVE DISPOSSESSION and
ETHNIC CLEANSING of the Palestinian people for the past six decades.
http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Palestine-Remembered/Story725.html

| THE KEY TO PEACE: Dismantling the Matrix of Control:
http://www.merip.org/mero/mero091109

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