| Real McCoy? How They Rebuilt #Stonehenge!

How They Rebuilt Stonehenge ~ UFO Aliens UKAmazing Facts.

“For decades the official Stonehenge guidebooks have been full of fascinating facts and figures and theories surrounding the world’s greatest prehistoric monument.

What the glossy brochures do not mention, however, is the systematic rebuilding of the 4,000 year old stone circle throughout the 20th Century. The restoration has been kept elusive and a large percentage of those planning a trip to the monument have no idea that they aren’t getting the full story.”

Right: 17th Century depiction of StonehengeImage credit: Wikipedia

Post-WW1 aerial photograph before 1960s reconstruction. Image credit: Wikipedia

This is one of the dark secrets of history archaeologists don’t talk about: The day they had the builders in at Stonehenge to recreate the most famous ancient monument in Britain as they thought it ought to look.

This picture shows workers on the site in 1901 in a restoration which caused outrage at the time but which is rarely referred to in official guidebooks. For it means that Stonehenge, jewel in the crown of Britain’s heritage industry, is not all it seems. Much of what the ancient site’s millions of visitors see in fact dates back less than 50 years.

From 1901 to 1964, the majority of the stone circle was restored in a series of makeovers which have left it, in the words of one archaeologist, as ‘a product of the 20th century heritage industry’. But the information is markedly absent from the guidebooks and info-phones used by tourists at the site. Coming in the wake of the news that the nearby Avebury stone circle was almost totally rebuilt in the 1920s, the revelation about Stonehenge has caused embarrassment among archaeologists. English Heritage, the guardian of the monument, is to rewrite the official guide, which dismisses the Henge’s recent history in a few words.  Dave Batchelor, English Heritage’s senior archaeologist said he would personally rewrite the official guide. ‘The detail was dropped in the Sixties’, he admitted. ‘But times have changed and we now believe this is an important piece of the Stonehenge story and must be told’.

Image from the 1954 reconstruction

Cambridge University archaeological archivist and leading Stonehenge author Christopher Chippindale admitted: ‘Not much of what we see at Stonehenge hasn’t been touched in some way’. And historical research student Brian Edwards, who recently revealed that the nearby Avebury Monument had been totally rebuilt, has found rare pictures of Stonehenge being restored. He said: ‘It has been as if Stonehenge had been historically cleansed’. ‘For too long people have been kept in the dark over the Stonehenge restoration work. I am astonished by how few people know about it. It is wonderful the guide book is going to tell the full story in the future.’

Image from the 1954 reconstruction

A million visitors a year are awe-struck as they look back in time into another age and marvel at the primitive technology and muscle-power which must have been employed transporting the huge monoliths and raising them on Salisbury Plain.  They gasp as they are told about this strangely spiritual site…. mankind’s first computer, its standing stones and precise lintels, lining up magically and mysteriously with the heavens above and the solstice suns.

An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July 1877. Image credit: Wikipedia

But now, as if to head off a potential great archaeological controversy – and following interest displayed by historical researcher Brian Edwards and a local newspaper, the brochures will be re-written, to include the ‘forgotten years’. The years when teams of navvies sat aboard the greatest cranes in the British Empire to hoist stones upright; drag leaning trilithons into position, replace fallen lintels which once sat atop the huge sarsens. As Mr Edwards – the erstwhile enfant terrible of British archaeology following revelations that nearby Avebury was a total 20s and 30s rebuild by marmalade millionaire Alexander Keiller – says: ‘What we have been looking at is a 20th Century landscape, which is reminiscent of what Stonehenge MIGHT have been like thousands of years ago. It has been created by the heritage industry and is NOT the creation of prehistoric people. What we saw at the Millennium is less than 50 years old.’

Image from the 1954 reconstruction

In archaeological terms the re-writing of the guidebooks is dynamite. English Heritage run Stonehenge on behalf of the nation, and an English Heritage insider revealed: ‘Dark forces were at work in the 70s, when a decision was taken to drop the information about the restorations Now that is about to change.’

The Restoration and Rebuild

The first restoration of Stonehenge was launched 100 years ago this year.

And, in 1901, as the builders went to work, The Times letters column was full of bucolic missives of complaint. But the first stage of ‘restoration’ thundered ahead regardless and the style guru of the day, John Ruskin, released the maxim which was to outlive him…. ‘Restoration is a lie,’ he stormed.  Nevertheless the Stonehenge makeover was to gather momentum and more work was carried out in 1919, 1920, 1958, 1959 and 1964. Christopher Chippindale, curator at the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and Anthropology, and author of Stonehenge Complete, admits: ‘Nearly all the stones have been moved in some way and are standing in concrete.’

A stone was straightened and set in concrete in 1901, six further stones in 1919 and 1920, three more in 1959 and four in 1964. There was also the excavation of the Altar stone and re-erection of the Trilithon in 1958.

Image from the 1954 reconstruction

The guide book ‘Stonehenge and Neighbouring Monuments’ , and the audio tour of the Henge omit any comprehensive mention of the rebuilding in the 20th Century. Only on page 18 is there a slight reference…’A number of the leaning and fallen stones have been straightened and re-erected.’ But even that official guide book does not contain clues to the large scale restoration, which was not deemed worth a full entry.

Why does John Constable’s 1835 painting of the Henge on pages 18 and 19 look so vastly different from the latter-day pristine photograph across pages 28 and 29?  REASON: A lot of restoration work had taken place in between the two images being recorded. And, during long hot summers it would be possible – if one could get near to the stones – to see the turf peeling back to reveal the concrete boots into which the majority of the stones are now set. A dead give-away, but difficult to spot now as proximity to the Henge is limited.

One wonders how an event as massive as the resurrection of a worldly monument such as Stonehenge went without notice. Today, it is rare to stumble upon any mention of the reconstruction of the historic monument. People like having clear guidelines that are followed, like those at an online casino where there is no room for misunderstandings. If the reconstruction of Stonehenge was made clear to the public it would only add to its historical value.

Image from the 1954 reconstruction

Our pictures clearly show the rebuilding in progress. Some were discovered by Mr Chippendale and were used in a revised edition of his book. Many of those have since been lost. Others were found by Mr Edwards who unearthed guide books from the time when Stonehenge was not ashamed of its past and featured photographs and stories of the restorations.

‘The news is sensational,’ said Mr Edwards, a decorate student at the University of the West of England. ‘Once I realised how much work had been carried out, I was amazed to discover that practically no-one outside of the henge know of its reconstruction in the last 100 years. I have always thought that if people are bothering to make a trip to Stonehenge, from home or abroad, then the least they should expect is a true story.’

Part of this article was written by Roger Taverner and originally featured in ‘The Western Daily Press’  8/1/2001.

Pictures appear courtesy of The Wiltshire Archeological Society and Christopher Chippindale.


Stonehenge Wiltshire LightingB

| Historical revisionism and the truly amazing scale of the Brutish Empire!

The British are coming! Over the centuries, we’ve invaded a staggering 90% of the world’s nationsRYAN KISIEL, MailOnline.

  • A new study suggests the Empire’s global reach has been underestimated
  • Of almost 200 countries, only 22 have never experienced a British invasion
  • Only a small proportion of invaded countries made up formal dominions

Britain may once have had an empire on which the sun never set – but a study shows its true global reach was far more extensive than maps would suggest.

Throughout the ages, Britain has invaded almost 90 per cent of the world’s countries.

An analysis of the histories of almost 200 nations found that only 22 have never experienced a British assault.

British rule: A map of the world shows in red the extent of the British Empire in 1901 but a new study has found the Empire's global reach was underestimated and that almost 90 per cent of the world's countries have been invaded by BritainBritish rule: A map of the world shows in red the extent of the British Empire in 1901 but a new study has found the Empire’s global reach was underestimated and that almost 90 per cent of the world’s countries have been invaded by Britain

These include Luxembourg as well as Guatemala, Tajikistan and the Marshall Islands in the Pacific.

the ones we've never taken

The study – part of a new book, All the Countries We’ve Ever Invaded: And the Few We Never Got Round To – comes against the background of maps which show that at its height the Empire ruled over almost a quarter of the world’s population.

Author Stuart Laycock worked his way around the countries on the globe alphabetically to see if British forces had ever strayed into each territory.

However, only a very small proportion of his total list of invaded countries made up formal dominions of the Empire.

The remainder have been included if a military incursion was achieved through force, the threat of force, or by negotiation or payment.

Raids by British pirates, privateers and armed explorers have been included if they were acting on the behalf or approval of the government.

Therefore, many countries that once formed part of the Spanish empire and seem to have little historical connection with the UK, such as Costa Rica, Ecuador and El Salvador, made the list because of the repeated raids they suffered from state-sanctioned British sailors.

The earliest invasion launched from the British Isles was an incursion into Gaul, northern France, at the end of the second century.

Clodius Albinus led an army, thought to include many Britons, across the Channel in  an attempt to seize the imperial throne. The force was defeated in 197AD at Lyon.

Other invasions highlighted in the book include that of Iceland  in 1940 after the neutral nation refused to enter the war on the Allies’ side.

Military manoeuvre: Iceland was invaded in 1940 by the British after the neutral nation refused to enter the war on the Allies sideMilitary manoeuvre: Iceland was invaded in 1940 by the British after the neutral nation refused to enter the war on the Allies side
Two-year project: Author Stuart Laycock started the unusual project after his 11-year-old son asked him how many countries the British Empire had invadedTwo-year project: Author Stuart Laycock started writing the book after his son asked him how many countries the British Empire had invaded

The invasion force, of 745 marines, met with strong protest from the Iceland government, but no resistance.

Mr Laycock, who has previously published books on Roman history, began the two-year research after being asked by his 11-year-old son, Frederick, how many countries the British had invaded.

‘I was absolutely staggered when I reached the total,’ he said. ‘I like to think I have a relatively good general knowledge, but there are places where it hadn’t occurred  to me that these things had ever happened. It shocked me.

‘On one level, for the British, it is quite amazing and quite humbling, that this is all part of our history, but clearly there are parts of our history that we are less proud of. The book is not intended as any kind of moral judgment on our history or our empire. It is meant as a bit of fun.’

The only other nation which has achieved anything approaching the British total, Mr Laycock said, is France – which also holds the record for having endured the most British invasions.

He is now asking for the public help in listing more British invasions. Mongolia is listed as never been invaded, but Mr Laycock believes it could have been.


| Magna Carta: The most ignorant UK PM ever?

PM suffers humour and history failure in Letterman ordeal ~ DAVID USBORNE, The Independent.

Downing Street should know: do not put the Prime Minister on The Late Show with David Letterman.

Yet that is where David Cameron was last night, engaged in some friendly back and forth about our nation’s glorious past. Two blocks from where The History Boys took Broadway by storm, our own history boy, Eton-educated and all, didn’t do so well.

Maybe they set it up to coincide with the UN General Assembly, because Boris Johnson was a guest in June? In any event, things weren’t looking good when they briefly filled the studio with stage smog in a little joke about the London weather. Then on walked the PM to the strains of Rule Britannia.  And so it began…

“Do you mind if I ask you a lot of dumb American questions,” Mr Letterman begins.  (Uh-oh muttered the British scribes and Downing Street advisors crammed into the green room back-stage.) Question number one: Who composed Rule Britannia?  This was just the beginning of the ambush.  (The Magna Carta questions are still to come.) Cameron looks blank.  Clearly he doesn’t know. “You’re testing me now,” he said. He got that right, at least.

It was awkward, but the PM had a stab.  “Elgar?”  Letterman looked dubious and warned that his researchers would be checking.  Then he launched into ruminations about the British Empire when a quarter of the globe pink. “Historians would look at that period as just awful,” Letterman suggested, before professing to be confused about the composition of the United Kingdom. “What’s the deal with Wales?”

Well, it’s hard to answer that. But then we turned to the Magna Carta.  Well that was “signed in 1215” (good), said Cameron, on an island in the Thames. Letterman thought that bit was wrong. Wasn’t it a “big open place” that hadn’t been on his tour when he visited London? Finally, the Prime Minster got it. “Runnymede” (which is not an island).

But when Letterman asked where the Magna Carta now was, Cameron  was stumped. “It does exist,” he ventured, he had seen a copy in the Houses of Parliament.

But then the final humiliation: What does Magna Carta mean? No clue, blank, empty, without hope. “Oh it would be good if you knew this – we’ll find it,” Letterman jabbed.

Team Briton, we, the inventors of humour allegedly, were left in the dust by the funny American – who’d have thought it?  When Letterman asked impishly who would ever have bet against London staging a brilliant Olympics, the reply from Cameron was meant to be Mitt Romney. But the joke appeared to pass him by completely.

If Cameron was a US politician, failing a test on the basics of American history, he would be toast this morning. But it raises another question: would the PM pass a citizenship test for his British passport? If the UK version was as strict as its US equivalent, he wouldn’t stand a chance. Rule Britannia: Thomas Arne.  Magna Carta: “Big Charter”.



The Full Letterman-David Cameron Interview