Who holds the #risk, how risk is assessed and how brave or risk averse those who make decisions for children?

Who holds the risk, how risk is assessed and how brave or risk averse those who make decisions for children?  ~ | Mar 13, 2017 | Transparency News |

Cross posted from the Child Protection Resource blog

 

On March 9th 2017, Lord Justice McFarlane delivered the first of the Bridget Lindley OBE Memorial Lectures.  He began by paying tribute to the memory of Bridget Lindley who dedicated her career to the work of the Family Rights Group. She is greatly missed.

I am sorry that I never got the chance to meet Bridget Lindley. I have often expressed both sorrow and exasperation at the apparent dearth of intelligent committed people who wish to direct their energies into understanding the child protection system and making it better, rather than wasting time and energy on unfair and unprincipled criticism and attack.

But I am glad that I got the chance to meet Lord Justice McFarlane and to witness first hand a member of the senior judiciary who is genuinely concerned and interested about what happens ‘at the coal face’ in the day to day toil of the family courts, so far removed from the gothic splendour of the RCJ and ermine robes of the High Court.

The historical development of our understanding of what is child abuse?

He offers an interesting historical precis of how our understanding of what happens to children has developed over the years. What we recognise now as clear ‘child abuse’ would not have been seen as such by a time traveller from the 19th Century – or even from the 20th Century.  As McFarlane LJ comments:

The ability of a society to acknowledge and begin to understand unpalatable truths, about how life is lived by some of its members, is a sign of maturity that only comes with time and the result of a long road carefully travelled. Thus it was only in the  middle of the 20th Century that it came to be accepted that a parent might physically ill-treat their child….

In terms of what kinds of mistreatment we are willing or able to identify as ‘child abuse’, he notes that the ‘professional pendulum’ will inevitably swing between under and over diagnosis before coming to settle on a well-informed understanding of what the available evidence in any particular case might indicate. We see this process in the continuing debates about ‘shaken baby syndrome’ and ‘parental alienation’. We may still have some way to travel along particular pathways in the debate but what is clear is that our knowledge base is immensely more sophisticated than it was in the 1970s.

What happens in other countries?

In this we seem to be apart from other European jurisdictions; an interesting counter weight to the oft expressed (and erroneous) view that the UK is ‘alone’ in permitting ‘forced adoption’. McFarlane LJ recognises that other countries make the decision to take a child away from its parents as a largely administrative determination, overseen by tribunals. ‘Fact findings’ to determine if abuse has happened are rare; ‘permanency planning’ for children also appears not to feature in decisions about children.

So is the true picture that other European countries are less keen on promoting adoption because they simply do not have the court structures to enable them to determine the nature and degree of abuse children have suffered at the hands of parents?  It would be ironic indeed for many campaigning groups if the true picture from abroad is that both children and parents are less protected in systems which do not promote ‘forced adoption’. But sadly, I do not have anything like the knowledge base necessary to continue this interesting line of discussion and absent Claire Fenton Glynn’s return to this field, I don’t think anyone has.

Better knowledge and understanding of what other countries do to protect children is urgently required. We are very different from other European countries. We need to understand why and we must not be afraid of finding out what long term outcomes look like for children in the different systems.

The current strengths of our system

The strengths are immediate and obvious, despite the crude propaganda from several campaigning groups. Robust challenge is not merely permitted of the state’s case; it is expected, it is demanded, and the state funds it. We have developed a sophisticated understanding of not only the child’s experience in a family, but of how and why that family can be supported to look after their child.

But there is no room for complacency. Lord Justice McFarlane identifies ‘six short points’ and three significant problems that give him continuing cause for concern.

The Six Short points.

  • Neglect and resources – many cases involve low level neglect of children. At some point the balance tips away from trying to support the family into a decision to remove a child. So when is this tipping point? Who decides? What happens when the family has not been well supported as resources just aren’t available?
  • Post Adoption Contact – there is still no ‘sea change’ 10 years on from the Adoption and Children Act 2002. Attitudes persist that adoptions should be ‘closed’ and there appears to be little creative thought about how to consider other options for a child. See here for further discussion of this issue.
  • Interventions to support parents – why has it taken so long for initiatives such as FDAC and Pause to be made available, when they are so plainly beneficial in the right cases?
  • Special Guardianship Orders – are they being over-used? Is the pressure of the 26 week timetable causing problems?
  • Domestic abuse – are we really getting the balance right here? Isn’t it better for children to stay at home with protection and support? are the family courts keeping up with the criminal courts, and are they sufficiently alive to issues about coercive control? (NB the Transparency Project will be launching its Guide to understanding how issue of violence and abuse are dealt with in family courts at CPConf2017 on the 9th June – see here for more details)
  • Independent Reviewing Officers – there has been NO occasion when an IRO has bought a case back to court, even though many cases have clearly required that kind of scrutiny. Is a key aspect of system thus falling short? What can we do about it?

The Three Big Reasons to Hesitate

Is adoption the best option?

McFarlane LJ makes clear this is a genuine question. He has no concluded view but it is important to ask. I wholeheartedly agree. It has been a frequent feature of my commentary and complaints over the years that successive Governments have simply churned out the ‘adoption is best’ mantra without much thought or examination of the evidence base for that, or the demands of Article 8 of the ECHR.  He makes the clear and crucial point:

Adoption has changed in a number of important respects over the past two decades and a number of the characteristics of adoption, and the assumptions on which it hitherto has been based, have shifted.

Historically, when a child was adopted, both law and practice went to great lengths to achieve a total separation between the child and the natural family. That’s a much less achievable position with the exponential rise of social media. Also the ages at which children are adopted are rising – 20% of current adoptions are of children who are over 4 years old. Children are therefore more likely to have clear memories of their birth families, and have been exposed to more trauma within them.  McFarlane gives a well deserved shout out to the work of the POTATOs – Parents of Traumatised Adopted Teens – who give striking accounts of the difficulties they have faced parenting teenagers traumatised by their earlier experiences, often being given only a partial account of the actual experiences of their child. Often these children end up returning to the care system via section 20 of the CA when their parents can no longer cope.

There is a very welcome recognition from McFarlane LJ that the nature of adoptive parenting is probably now shifting; rather than providing cute babies for couples who can’t have their own children, adoptive parents must now be recognised as needing to provide specialised therapeutic parenting, which has impact upon not merely the recruitment and training of adopters but the provision of support for adoptive families, for the rest of the child’s minority and even beyond.

We also need much better information about long term outcomes – courts have to make decisions about a child’s adoption based on his or her welfare for an entire lifetime. On what evidence does a judge currently make that kind of decision? This links to the second big question.

But how do we know it has worked out alright?

Family judges get almost no feedback on the outcomes of their decisions. Even when an adoptive placement breaks down, the Judge is not informed as a matter of course. McFarlane LJ does not suggest it would be appropriate for the Judge to play any part in a review of why a placement breaks down, but it could only be beneficial for the Judge to be made aware, by a short report. He recalls the incredulity of a business consultant, called into to review the family justice system, on being told that the key decision makers, being paid a high salary, were given ‘absolutely no information as to whether their decisions had been effective’.

He comments

So my first two ‘buts’ are related. Without sound, wide-ranging research as to outcomes, and without detailed individual feedback as to the progress of particular cases, it is difficult, indeed logically it is impossible, for judges to have confidence that the current balance between child protection and human rights, which favours a massive erosion of the right to family life because it is ‘necessary’ to do so to protect the child, is indeed justified

Third Big Question: Transparency and the need to shine a light on what we do

Of all the valuable and worthwhile issues raised by McFarlane LJ in his speech, it is this final part that brings tears of gratitude to my eyes. He generously recognises the efforts of The Transparency Project in this regard – ‘transparency’ is about so much more than just allowing passive public scrutiny of processes and outcomes. We must generate a far greater understanding amongst the public about what is behind the decisions made.

He recognises the chilling impact of the less responsible of the groups which campaign against the ‘evil’ family courts, an issue about which I have raged and agonised for many years now, increasingly incredulous at the apparent lack of interest in just how much damage these groups can do.

He comments:

From what I have been told from a range of sources, and from my own exposure on a daily basis to litigants in person seeking to appeal child care decisions, there is a significant and growing distrust show by some parents in child care lawyers and judges. This is deeply worrying and needs to be addressed if it is not to lead to yet more parents disengaging from working with professionals and the process in a way which can, in my view, only damage their interests rather than enhance them.

Conclusions

Who holds the risk, how risk is assessed and how brave or risk averse those who make decisions for children at risk of significant harm may be are central issues in every child protection case.

We can’t respect human rights without engaging fully in the process where those rights are embedded. If parents are being prevented from engaging, either because they do not know their rights or they are being given ‘targeted advice’ NOT to engage, they risk losing their children. And their children risk losing their parents. It is that simple and that stark.

Judges need proper information on which to base their decisions about the rest of a child’s life. They cannot be left – in his rather terrifying metaphor – as if they are learning to play darts by throwing them randomly about, without sight of the dart board and not knowing if they had hit the board or the wall.

To this end, McFarlane LJ offers some suggestions for a solution:

  • significantly raise the level of public education and awareness as to the way in which the family [justice] system operates
  • ensure that parents are exposed to accurate and sound legal advice at the earliest stage, including pre-proceedings
  • conduct extensive research into long term outcomes for children so Judges can have proper information on which to base decisions.

An example of an innovative and low cost solution to both is the Family Court Information website at the Bristol CJC, brain child of Lucy Reed. It is frankly disgraceful that this initiative has not been taken up nationwide. I struggle to think of a better example of such valuable information being provided at such a low cost. Setting up the website for each court area would cost less than £1,000. The analytics for the web site show it is being accessed regularly far beyond the local area it serves. There is clearly a need here for accurate, clear information.

I applaud the range and depth of this speech. It grapples head on with some of the most difficult issues I have been worried about over many years now. I do hope that something so clear and courageous in its willingness to both ask and attempt to answer some really important and difficult questions, now heralds a new Dawn in the long, dark night of woeful and compromised ‘debate’ about the child protection system. We can no longer leave the field open to those who spread misinformation and misery.

It’s time to reclaim our child protection system. To celebrate its many strengths. To tackle head on without fear or shame, its many weaknesses.

It’s been a long time coming.

Post by Sarah Phillimore

The full text of the speech is on the Judiciary website.

Christina Lienen: Why the Implications of ‘No Deal’ Are No Mere ‘Exercise in Guesswork’

“To summarise the other four points raised, there is some focus on the resort to ordinary public international law and potentially arbitration should the dispute over the exit bill not be resolved during the two-year period [34], the possibility of unilateral action in relation to guaranteeing EU citizenship rights post Brexit [37], the status of UK assets deployed as part of ongoing EU missions [50], and the necessity of some form of customs checking arrangements [52].

In conclusion, this report rightly suggests that the consequences of a ‘no deal’ scenario are largely predictable, and the potential risks associated with it should be assessed and a contingency plan developed, otherwise private individuals as well as public institutions might face considerable uncertainty and hardship post Brexit. Such an evaluation is particularly pertinent in light of the fact that the possibility of the UK finding itself in a ‘no deal’ situation is not as remote as one may be inclined to think.”

UK Constitutional Law Association

Theresa May is to trigger Article 50 on 29 March 2017, kicking off the two-year negotiation period during which the relationship between the UK and the EU will be redefined. On 12 March the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee published their ninth report of the current session: ‘Article 50 negotiations: Implications of ‘no deal’’. This is the first Select Committee publication focusing specifically on the implications faced by the UK in the event of a ‘no deal’ situation, with reference to a range of different sectors, policy areas and circumstances. Last week the concerns raised in the report as to the Government’s position or rather the apparent lack thereof regarding ‘no deal’ implications seemed to be confirmed when the Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union made headlines telling the Brexit Select Committee that the Government had done no economic assessment of the possible effects of a…

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Ignorance is Our Enemy; Knowledge is Our Weapon

‘In turn, these same damaged information structures are leading the narcissistic/(borderline) parent to distort the child’s processing of sadness grief and loss surrounding divorce through the manipulative and psychologically controlling parenting practices of this parent.

“The deactivation of attachment behavior is a key feature of certain common variants of pathological mourning.” (Bowlby, 1980, p. 70)

“Disturbances of personality, which include a bias to respond to loss with disordered mourning, are seen as the outcome of one or more deviations in development that can originate or grow worse during any of the years of infancy, childhood and adolescence.” (Bowlby, 1980, p. 217)’

Dr. Craig Childress: Attachment Based "Parental Alienation" (AB-PA)

I’m a little reluctant to share this with you, because I’m tipping my hand to the pathogen.  But I think that as we move forward it will be important to recognize allies of the pathology.  So I’m going to fill you in on a little secret that I know but the pathogen doesn’t.

The pathogen is a set of damaged information structures in the attachment networks of the brain that create both the personality pathology of the allied narcissistic/(borderline) parent, and also the attachment-related pathology of pathological mourning (Bowlby) that’s called “parental alienation” in the general culture (attachment-based parental alienation; AB-PA).

These damaged information structures in the attachment system of the narcissistic/(borderline) parent were created many years ago in the childhood attachment trauma of this parent, and these damaged information structures are distorting this parent’s processing of sadness, grief, and loss surrounding the divorce.

In turn, these same damaged information…

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#Life: 6 Secret Signs your Marriage is in Trouble!

Guest Post: 6 Secret Signs your Marriage is in Trouble

Many people don’t realize the problems they’re facing in their marriage until it’s too late. This is a major issue because most of these problems can be solved through communication and teamwork. After all, you are partners, and you should do everything together, especially solve problems that plague your marriage. Divorce Lawyer in Syracuse

Not spending “Just the two of us” time anymore

“Just the two of us” is needed very often in a relation. When a couple lacks these alone time with each other, it creates a misunderstanding and lack of attraction. Arrange and plan to spend more quality time without any distractions. Try a secret movie night with your partner or go for a long drive or two the place where you met for the first time. You need those alone time together to eliminate any misunderstandings.

Arguing about the same things over and over

Constantly going back to a problem that should have been solved some time ago is a bad sign. This means that you haven’t been able to reach an agreement that would solve an issue. Instead, you constantly fight and bicker over the same things repeatedly.

Not having fun together

No having fun together in your free time is an indication of avoidance. If your partner starts spending more time with his or her family and friends and not giving the time that you both required then this is a definite sign of distance between you two. Find out the reason and try to do something to impress your partner. Arrange something like surprise date or buy your partner a gift or do somethings innovative to bring back the fun-time that both of you deserve.

Speak but don’t communicate

You talk to each other but those words aren’t getting into your brains, and you simply don’t care about what your partner says. Your marriage is comprised of small talk that exists simply to fill the silence that surrounds you.

 

Not keen to celebrate what you love about your partner

Every partner should cherish and celebrate the quality of their better half to compliment. A sweet word to praise your partner every now and then is highly required. When you feel that you both are not keen on celebrating each other’s quality anymore, it is a sign of fatigue in your relation. For the sake of your relation, try to remember the good things that you used to love about your partner and compliment them and show that you still love these qualities about your loved person.

Fight about silly things

Your partner got mad at you because you spilled some water on the floor. You got mad at your partner because she/he didn’t close the window and it’s too cold in the room. These are silly reasons to fight over, yet you fight because you’ve grown apart.

These are all signs of marriage in discord. They all lead down the same path – divorce & lots of changes come with a divorce. Make sure to be open about these or you might find yourselves talking to a Syracuse divorce lawyer.

Here’s how to fix it.

 

  • Express concerns constructively

 

Talk about your problems with each other. There’s nothing better than healthy communication with your significant other. You’ll solve problems more easily by doing this.

 

  • Remember your vows

 

Don’t forget what you said to each other on the altar! Remember the words you spoke and keep true to them – do not break your vows if there’s a way to fix your marriage!

 

  • Make decisions cooperatively

 

Don’t simply decide to do something without telling your partner. This makes it look like you’re selfish and self-centred. You have a partner and he/she has you, remember? Don’t forget about your partner.

 

  • Restore Intimacy

 

Couples can sometimes lack intimacy for a long time due to their change of heart to each other. If you restore intimacy and start talking about your problems, you’re well on your way to fixing your marriage!

via Guest Post: 6 Secret Signs your Marriage is in Trouble — Charon QC

#Science: How the #universe could end and when?

How will the universe end? When will that happen? | QUORA, Ethan Oh, Amateur Scientist.

 

Nobody knows for sure how and when the universe will end.  It’s challenging — to say the least — to predict outcomes that are many orders of magnitude further into the future than all the time that has come before us.  If some “wild card” exception to the currently-understood laws of physics does not appear, then entropy will ceaselessly increase.  All of the energy and matter will have become so disordered and spread-out through the then massive cosmos that it will be unreachable.  Time, which is measured by the movement of matter and energy, will no longer be possible and will effectively cease to pass. This is called “the heat death” of the universe.

This will only happen after the red dwarfs, then neutron stars burn out. Even atoms, over very long spans of time will break down to hydrogen. Even the neutrons will fly away from there nuclei. Even the electrons will be lost. Then after all the light-giving sources fade (the neutron stars) the universe will enter its longest phase, many orders of magnitude longer than the 100 trillion years that came before it, as only black holes will remain. But even they will bleed away into space and fade.   If nothing stops it, the heat death of the universe will not occur until something like 10,000-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion years into the future.  More years than atoms in the universe!

The really important phase where ordered life is possible–the stelliferous era– will last something like 100 billion to a trillion years.  We’re just getting started!

Adwait Naravane

Abhishek Maniyar

Eventual fate of our universe depends upon overall energy contents and shape of the universe. Three possible scenarios are possible – Big rip, Big crunch and Big bounce – Ultimate fate of the universe – Wikipedia .

According to our current understanding, our universe is flat and we are in a regime of accelerated expansion. This accelerated expansion is being driven by a mysterious energy called ‘Dark Energy’ Dark energy – Wikipedia . The amount of Dark energy or matter content in the universe is given through cosmological density parameters which are ΩDEΩDE(which sometimes is represented as ΩΛΩΛ) and ΩmΩmfor dark energy and matter in the universe respectively. These two add up to 1. Current measurements show thatΩDE0.7ΩDE≈0.7and Ωm0.3Ωm≈0.3So we can clearly see that our universe is dominated by dark energy right now and our current understanding states that it will continue to accelerate and expand forever.

Ian McCullough

Who says that the universe has to end? Are you certain that it had a beginning? What if the universe just infinitely cycles through expansions and contractions like an eternally beating heart?


An Explanation for Everything by Ian McCullough on Ian’s Posts

There are many problems with this question. First of all: what is the Universe? We know only what we can observe. We can observe only a continuum in distance about 42 billion light years, and only handful of particles: photons, electrons, proton, neutrons and neutrinos. We know that there is more: we know that Universe is larger, possibly much larger. We know that there are particles and forces that we can not observe directly: dark matter and dark energy. We know that our current understanding of physics is incomplete. But what is the area of our ignorance? Maybe Universe is inifinitely large? Maybe it has additional dimensions? Maybe there are particles and forces even more exotic than dark matter and dark energy, that we still do not know about? Maybe there are laws of physics that we were unable to observe yet, because they manifest only in timespans of orders larger than 10^50 years?

All of what we can predict is an extrapolation of our current knowledge. We can extrapolate that after several trillion years all stars will burn out and Universe become dark. After 10^80 years all matter will decay, and only black holes remain, and after 10^100 years black holes also evaporate, leaving Universe consisting only of photons.

But these extrapolations are not justified. Our known laws of physics are not valid in such timespans, just like they are invalid inside black hole. Imagine for example that there exist a physical process that violates conservation of energy: each particle is duplicating itself every 10^60 years. Such phenomena would be completely undetectable for us, because it would mean that so far, since Earth formation probably only 1 Earth atom duplicated itself. But when we extrapolate into the future, then within 10^70 years this process would dominate in the Universe. Exponential growth of number of particles would fill Universe with matter, creating new stars and black holes, reversing Universe expansion etc. This shows that our predictions might be totally wrong because we do not know the crucial facts.

This is only one example. There is infinite number of possible laws and phenomenas that might determine Universe future. All of we can say is that Universe will last for many trillions of years. After that we must simply admit that its future is unknown to us.

Jeff Kay

Some fine answers here, just want to add a particuarly favorite speculation.

Robert Caldwell of Dartmouth College is the leading proponent of a theory popularly called “The Big Rip”.

Basically, it states that at the present rate of expansion, the universe, in about 20 billion years or so, will begin to experience the opposite of the Big Bang.

What is thought to happen is that all matter and energy in the universe will begin to break apart, in stages.  First, the super clusters of galaxies will break apart, then the galaxies themselves.  Eventally, all planetary systems, planets and stars, and, finally, all molecules, atoms and subatomic particles.

It sounds pretty far out, but considering how little we know anyway, it is just as valid as anything else on the table.

Dark Energy May Tear us Apart
Fate of the Universe

Dhiraj Khanal

A really interesting question! There are different theories and hypothesis on how the universe will end but it is really very difficult to tell when.

Four scenarios by which the universe could end:

The Big Rip:

It says that dark energy keeps pulling the universe apart at an ever accelerating speed, until everything in the universe including atom, pull itself apart. Big Rip models are allowed, but not preferred because they need a heck of understanding about dark energy. So, it is not that plausible.

The Big crunch:

In this model, it is believed that by something magic the expansion of universe will stop. What a relief! But now it will begin to collapse in on itself into a crunch, triggering for next potential bang.

This argument was put forward before we discovered that expansion of universe was accelerating. A Big Crunch now seems very unlikely, because you’d need dark energy – i.e., whatever is causing the acceleration – to turn off and then something other to cause collapse. I don’t know if gravity will be able to do that on its own.

The Big Slurp:

Okay, this is crazy! It could happen as you are reading this or it could happen in billions of years. Unlike the other scenarios, this does not require much time to bring an end to the universe. The theory behind it is meta stability in vacuum because of the number 126-ish eV that we got for the mass of higgs boson. I don’t know about any update made on this.

The Big Freeze:

It is the most plausible scenario. If the expansion of the universe continues. Every galaxy move away from one another. They will be so far that no light can travel from one galaxy to another. Eventually, the fuel of stars will run out. There will be no usable energy left. This is how it says the universe will end.

So!

The fact is that the universe won’t last there forever. Fortunately the galactic finale is billions of years away. In the mean time- Keep lookin’ up!

Brian Wells

Whether it collapses or not, the universe probably doesn’t have an edge any more than the 2D surface of a ball has an edge.

EDIT: Binrah Mahayishi properly pointed out that my answer falls short. So here’s more:

For the sake of being able to see the universe from the outside, let’s make it a 2D universe instead of a 3D universe. So a piece of paper, for example, could be a universe. It has edges and a center. If it were to contract to a point, the edges would retract and collapse onto the center as posed in the question detail.

Now stretch the piece of paper, joining the corners and edges so it forms a sphere. This 2D universe now has no edge and no center, just as the surface of a ball has no center or edge. It can expand and contract like a balloon without its edges advancing and receding, and if it contracts to nothing, every point on the surface of a contracting ball’s surface reaches the singularity at the same time. So every point on the 2D surface of a sphere is essentially the center point.

Just as this 2D universe is the surface of a 3D sphere, so too might our 3D universe be the surface of a 4D sphere (to take one of many possibilities). Like the sphere-surface 2D universe, it is not infinite even though it has no bounds or edges. And every point in our universe is essentially the center.

Todd Gardiner

The universe itself? No.

But the contents of the universe are likely to come to an end. If the expansion of the universe is so great that matter cannot exist, that would certainly count as and end in my book.

More about the possible ends here: Ultimate fate of the universe on Wikipedia.

Hmm… It’s not just a lack of knowledge in physics that you’re experiencing. It’s a lack of knowledge of mathematics. The universe is a Manifold… Well, kinda sorta. But for intuition, that notion should suffice.

Dirag Biswas

Our universe is destined to end it’s current session. I know not which session this is, but that it’ll revive again into another universe just like ours if the quantum fluctuations that ever occurred are the same as last time.
The group o’ multiverses we live in, well..our instantaneous version of our universe – that exists –  is also destined to die and revive again, but that’s just a theory. What do I know of grander things?..:)
Worry about your life, and death, mortal. You’re a human being and humans are extremely short lived. Worry about your legacy, your civilization. Live and act as much as you can to push the Human Race forward so that, if lucky you’ll be alive again to do the same things in the Universe’s next session.

George Gonzalez

Good question.   Some experiments have been done and it looks like the proton has a very, very long lifetime, like more than 10^33 years.  That is longer than the class periods in high school seemed.

Electrons can’t decay according to the basic laws, there would have to be a lighter particle with charge that it could decay to, and there doesnt seem to be one.

So ptotons and electrons are probably going to stick around.    Now whether they will all get sucked into a black hole is another question.

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Footnotes

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Anonymous
Anonymous

I would like to disseminate the religious explanation with some scientific evidence. (I know, this answer is an open call for downvotes and extremely obnoxious comments, I welcome it unbiased, everyone has freedom to reject and accept).

I agree with Dan Holliday that nobody knows when the universe will end, but it’s given clearly in Religious books that how it will end and there will be signs that will warn mankind about the coming hour. As much as, it is mentioned about the beginning of Universe.

“Do not the Unbelievers see That the heavens and the earth
Were joined together (as one Unit of Creation), before We clove them
asunder?” (Quran 21:30) this verse clearly indicates that the heaven and Earth (thus the universe) where once joined together, and then split apart.

Similarly, Big bang theory states that all the matter in the universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point; that exploded and brought about the beginning of the universe.

Thus is mentioned about the expansion of universe:

“And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it.”(Quran, 51:47)

Read More:
Quran on the Expansion of the Universe
Astronomers have discovered that the universe is in continuous motion, and that it is expanding. This was discovered by studying the galaxies and distant celestial bodies. The American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher, who studied the spectra of galaxies, noticed that the spectral lines of a few nearby systems were shifted toward longer wavelengths. This shift in wave-length showed that most galaxies were receding from the Milky Way at several hundred kilometers per second! 15

This picture shows that the distances between galaxies or clusters of galaxies are continuously increasing and that therefore the universe is expanding
The American astronomer Edwin Hubble confirmed that the universe was expanding and that the more remote the galaxy the higher was its recession velocity; and that its recession velocity was proportional to its distance.16 With this we see that scholars in astronomy have affirmed that the universe is ever expanding. This expansion will continue until gravity loses its pull and the planets will spread out in the universe, which will result in the end of the world.

This expansion will come to cease
The End of the two worlds

“The day that we roll up
The heavens like scroll
Rolled up for books (completed)”(Quran 21:104)

The end according to this verse is that the universe will come back together again as it was in the beginning. In this verse god is giving an example of how the universe will end and it is clear that this verse indicates that the universe will look like a sheet of paper

“Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang, Maxima, and DASI, have shown that the brightest spots are about 1 degree across. Thus the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. We now know that the universe is flat with only a 2% margin of error.”
WMAP- Shape of the Universe

Quran, Chapter 81: The folding up, provides insight into the end of the worlds.

“When the sun with its spacious light
is folded up,

When the star fall losing their lustre;

When the mountain vanish like a mirage;

When the she camel,
Ten months with young,
are left unattended,

When the wild beast are herded together
In human habitations

When the oceans boil over with a swell;

When the souls are sorted out, (being joined like with like);
When the female (infant),
Buried alive, is questioned-
For what crime she was killed;

When the scroll are led open,
When the sky is unveiled;

When the blazing fire is kindled to fierce heat;
and when the garden is brought near;
Then shall each soul know
What it has put forward.”

Quran: Chapter no. 82; The cleaving asunder; verse 1,2 and 3

“When the sky is cleft asunder
When the stars are scattered
When the oceans are suffered to burst forth”

Surely, It will end!

And

In the creation of heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are indeed Signs for men of understanding.”
[Aale Imran 3:190].

Alec Cawley

Current belief is the universe is going to expand forever, into a void with so little matter it can be regarded as empty.

Carlos Julian Lacayo Munoz

Only thing scientist knows for sure is that the universe is expanding and causing our solar system and others to move away from each other at a relatively fast pace (astronomically speaking – kind of like the Niagara falls is being eroded at 1 cm a year roughly). In turn, we may or may not crash with another solar system (our solar system was created by the crashing of two molecular nebulas). Expansion can happen indefinitely some scientists say, and as we expand, anti-matter may or may not make up more of the universe than today, which may have some unknown effect on stars, galaxies, planetary systems, black holes etc.   Some scientist believe that anti-matter is what is pushing expansion (ie. by pushing matter away from each other). This may take 100 trillion trillion years. There is a lot of questions and our understanding of our universe is no where near enough to provide a concrete answer.

The one thing we know for sure, is the life span of our solar system – the death of our star, ie our sun, which is said to already be 1/3 into its life span. So we need not worry about the end of the universe, and only hope, humans (if there still are by then) have already colonized not only other planets by other younger solar systems.

Page on Wikimedia

Bob van Boekel

A theory that I support, based on own opinions and thoughts is: how did the universe start? assuming that no universe is no particles or anything. What was the trigger of something to appear. from total nothing, on a certain moment (god knows what triggered that certain moment and why on that certain time). Therefore we can assume this is impossible, and therefore I think the universe lasts infinitely. As it’s very hard as shown above to prescribe a start to universe, an ending is also excluded, as every end has a start, right? But of course we have found several evidence about a big bang so doesn’t that conclude the universe once started? Well, I think that the universe actually pulses. Big bang, big shrink, big bang, big shrink ∞. Of course it sounds very strange and counter-intuitive but taking into account that time is a dimension and therefore is much more dynamic and flexible as we think it appears the theory might actually make sense.

Interesting thought:

  • If this infinite pulse is actually the case, this conversation would have already taken place, infinitely much. As no external influence could make this big bang any different from a previous or future big bang.

Scientists have come up with a theory on how the Universe might end called ‘The Big Crunch’.The theory goes like this –
The universe is constantly expanding at an immensely huge speed, as we all know, but soon it would gradually start losing the momentum it gained from the moment the Big Bang happened. In that case, it would slow down over a long, long period of time, come to a stop, and instead of pushing backwards would begin to get pulled back together. Ultimately, the Universe would end up in a singularity once more.
Of course, this is only theory. Another one is that the Universe may never lose its momentum, and that it will continue to expand forever. Scientists believe that the latter is more likely. In which case, we can only guess what fate awaits our Universe.

Michael Pollock

The universe, as least what we can see, will experience entropy and will adhere to the second law of thermodynamics by having all of the plasma and fusion burn out. All objects, big or small, will be lifeless rocks aimlessly flying throughout the universe because the object that used to be holding them in orbit loses its heat and therefore, gravity. This scenario would have the black holes burning out last because they are the biggest initial masses. The black holes will also be in much danger since many objects will be flying aimlessly in space.

Gerwin Dox

A few remaks on your question:
1. Current theories state that it will expand into infinity;
2. The universe has no center (Einstein proved this), and no edges.

Nobody knows.

Current models suggest the Universe will keep expanding forever. So it never ends … though there is a state of maximum entropy in the model called “heat death”.

Note: if time ends, then assigning a “when” to that end could be problematic.

Nobody knows how the universe will end as per the existing physics. There are three possibilities:

(i). Universe will expand forever.

(ii).Universe will stop to expand at some point of time in future.

(iii) . Universe will not only stop but begin to contract.

Note: Then there are theoretical possibilities of parallel universes and the universe going through cycles of birth (Big Bang) and death (Super Crunch) again and again. But these are only theoretical guesses.

Alper Tuna Alkan

To most of scientist it will end up by shrinking till there is nothing to shrink so its like reverse big bang and it will probably end when the universe is bigger than ever so big that the distance between matters are colossal that every single matter is alone so the universe will be extremely cold even it can be 0 kelvin. Because of that the universe will shrink.

James Pinkerton

For those who fear suffering through the process of dying … being terrified, enduring agonizing pain, depression, hopelessness, feeling useless, making those around you suffer, etc. I offer you this scenario to ease your fears, and free you to focus all your attention on enjoying all that life has to offer …

Only three restrictions:

  1. To the best of your ability, do nothing to harm others. They are no different than you. Their ‘right’ to enjoy to the fullest all that life has to offer is identical to yours. There will be times when you do cause others to suffer. It is part of the human condition. Ending a relationship, for example, when the other person does not want it to end. Some pain is unavoidable.
  2. Killing is acceptable only when no other alternative is possible in defense of yourself or in defense of others. Killing out of fear, in the belief that it is possible your life, or the lives of others could be in danger is not acceptable.
  3. As it is impossible to know when the end will come, do nothing that will deprive future generations. Do nothing that will diminish the beauty of this planet, for it may be the only habitat humans will ever occupy.

It is possible earth will cease to exist instantaneously.

At this very moment, a black hole could be heading toward us.

We don’t know if a black hole is subject to the normal laws of space.

We don’t know if they are limited in linear velocity.

In other words, black holes could move through space at speeds well beyond light speed.

If a black hole of quadrillions or quintillions of solar masses was approaching earth at 1,000 times the speed of light, we would never see it coming.

No telescopes would detect it in the past, because the evidence of the destruction it caused would not have reached us.

If this black hole swept through our solar system at such a velocity, everything would be ‘normal’ … then in 1/1,000 of a second every atom in the solar system … including the atoms of our bodies … would become part of the central mass of the black hole.

We would have no warning. No awareness of the transition. No pain. No fear. No suffering of any kind.

Our entire solar system (and every living being) would simply vanish.

Instantly.

I can’t think of a better way to die.

Selvendran K

Some scientists say that the universe will expand continuously . Some scientists say that one day the universe stop expanding and matters collide each other known as the “big crunch” and universe will die

Shubham Mishra

                                                                                                                                                            BIG RIP YES…                                           with this tremendous expansion of universe  due to dark energy ..at some moment dark energy will be able to tear apart each and every thing in this universe and thats will be the ultimate fate of our universe

 

How to Devalue and Discard the Narcissist While Supplying Yourself

Parental Alienation

In this book, survivors will learn:

•The red flags of narcissistic behavior and covert manipulation tactics, including subtle signs many survivors don’t catch in the early stages of dating a narcissist.
•The motives behind narcissistic abuse and techniques to resist a narcissist’s manipulation.
•Why abuse survivors usually stay with a narcissist long after incidents of abuse occur.
•How our own brain chemistry locks us into an addiction with a narcissistic or toxic partner, creating cravings for the constant chaos of the abuse cycle.
•Traditional and alternative methods to begin to detach and heal from the addiction to the narcissist, including eleven important steps all survivors must take on the road to healing.
•Methods to rewrite the narratives that abusers have written for us so we can begin to reconnect with our authentic selves and purpose.
•How to rebuild an even more victorious and empowering life after abuse.

Narcissistic partners employ…

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Khamenei: Zionists turned Western women into ‘sex object’

“These days, the racist Westerners are obsessed with non-White refugees created mostly by their proxy wars for Israel – but they hate to admit that it’s not the refugees who are threat to their demographic majority but their own decline in birth rates as result of discrimination of women population which has long surpassed the males population in most of European countries.”

Rehmat's World

On Sunday, Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatullah Ali Khamenei told a group of religious eulogizers that the Western culture degrades women’s dignity by turning them into sex objects through so-called feminism and fashion.

These (Western) deceived, negligent people scoff at a woman’s duty as housewife, while being a housewife means to raise human beings and produce the most majestic product and commodity in the exiting world, which is the human being. Turning a woman into a commodity and means of pleasure in the Western world is most probably among plots hatched by Zionists in order to destroy the human society,” said Khamenei (here).

Khamenei also criticized Muslims who mistreat their woman folks. “Unfortunately, sometimes inside the country and in some Islamic environments, duties and expectations are brought up for women, which in fact, amount to degradation and humiliation of women,” he said.

Ayatullah Ali…

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#Truth #FakeNews #AlternativeFacts #MSM: Mainstream Media In Total Collapse!


Few any longer believe the “mainstream media,” that is, the presstitutes. This has put the presstitutes into a panic as they lose their value to the ruling elite if they cannot control the explanations in order to justify the self-serving agendas of the ruling elite.

To fight back against the alternative media that does tell the truth, a secret group, PropOrNot, as well hidden as an an offshore money-laundering operation, published a list of 200 websites accused of being “Russian agents/dupes.”

PropOrNot’s effort to discredit truth-tellers was hurt by the site’s anonymity.

Consequently, the next list appeared on the website of the Harvard University library, where it is attributed to a Melissa Zimdars of whom no one has ever previously heard. The websites on the list are also on the PropOrNot list, but those of us on Zimdars’ list are no longer “Russian agents/dupes,” merely purveyors of “fake news.”

None of my readers agree that I provide fake news. Indeed, when I tried to retire, my readers demanded that I continue providing them with reliable information as they understand that the presstitute media consists of lies.

Now I hear from bloggers in France that the French newspaper Le Monde has posted a list of conspiratorial news sites, and, yes, French sites that translate and post my columns in the French language are on the list.

It appears that the campaign against truth is being extended to the entirety of the American Empire.

Just as the Washington Post and the Harvard Library made themselves look ridiculous and had to put some distance between themselves and the lists that they publicized, Le Monde will also. Not only was I a columnist for leading French newspapers, such as Liberation (Paris) in the late 1980s and for Le Figaro (Paris) in the early to mid-1990s, but also I was awarded the French Legion of Honor by the President of France in 1987. The honor was personally presented to me at the French Embassy in Washington, D.C., by the French Minister of Economics and Finance, and later Prime Minister, Edourad Balladur, at a grand party at which top level Reagan Administration officials attended bearing a letter from the President of the United States congratulating France for recognizing my contributions.

That Le Monde would post such a list proves the truth of Udo Ulfkotte’s statement in his well known book that there is no significant journalist anywhere in Europe that is not on the CIA payroll.

I have wondered if the PropOrNor list was a creation of the presstitute media, such as CNN, New York Times, Washington Post, NPR, MSNBC, in order to protect their monopoly over explanations, or whether it was a creation of the CIA in an effort to protect the presstitutes who serve the CIA by controlling the explanations that gullible and ignorant people receive. I suspect that the list is a creation of the CIA or the Department of State. It is a desperate act by those who have lost credibility to keep control over explanations.

The world of lies that comprises life in the Western world and hides reality from the people has destroyed all justification for the West’s long hegemony over humanity. Today the West, corrupt, violent, greedy beyond all measure, evil beyond Satan, is a collection of populations comfortable with the mass murder of millions of Muslims in many countries. When evil can go without challenge, what hope does humanity have?

The Harvard Library website, perhaps in response to criticism, has now identified Melissa Zimdars as an assistant professor of communication at Merrimack College.

The library distances itself from the list by declaring it to be “an informal list.” The library still has a link to Zimdars’ list of fake news websites, but the link opens to something else. Stephen Lendman provided a copy of Zimdars’ list on Global Research (Read Harvards Fake Guide To Fake News Sites. Americas 21st Century “Index Librorum Prohibitorum“). Notice that WikiLeaks is on Zimdars’ list, which shows Zimdars’ absurdity. WikiLeaks posts no commentary or news, only vetted documents. Here is Zimdars’ list:

21st Century Wire
Activist Post
Antiwar.com
Before Its News.com
Black Agenda Report
Boiling Frogs Post
Common Dreams
Consortium News
Corbett Report
Countercurrents
CounterPunch
David Stockman Contracorner
Fort Russ
Freedoms Phoenix
Global Research
The Greanville Post
Information Clearing House
Intellihub
Intrepid Report
Lew Rockwell
Market Oracle
Mint Press News
Moon of Alabama
Naked Capitalism
Natural News
Nomi Prins
Off-Guardian
Paul Craig Roberts
Pravda.ru
Rense
Rinf
Ron Paul Institute
Ruptly TV
Russia-Insider
Sgt Report
ShadowStats
Shift Frequency
SJLendman.blogspot.com – my alma mater (Harvard) recommends avoiding my writing; new articles posted daily; featuring truth-telling on major issues
Solari
Sott.net
South Front
Sputnik News
Strategic Culture.org
The Anti-Media
The Duran
The Intercept
The People’s Voice
The Saker
The Sleuth Journal
Third World Traveler
Voltairenet
What Really Happened
Who What Why
WikiLeaks
Zero Hedge

Source: Mainstream Media In Total Collapse


The original source of this article is Global Research

#UN #ESCWA #RuleOfLaw #Apartheid #Israel

If anyone doubts that Israel is guilty of the crime of apartheid, he should read the report “Israeli Practices towards the Palestinian People and the Question of Apartheid” commissioned by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). The report released on the 15th March 2017 and posted on the ESCWA website has now been removed on the orders of the UN Secretary-General, pressured, it is alleged, by the governments of Israel and the United States both of whom have denounced the report in harsh terms.

The withdrawal of the report prompted the ESCWA Executive Secretary and UN Under-Secretary-General Dr. Rima Khalaf, to submit her resignation. In her words, “I resigned because it is my duty not to conceal a clear crime and I stand by all the conclusions of the report.” It is worth noting that the report carried a clear disclaimer that “the findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the UN or its officials or Member States.”

The report was co-authored by two distinguished American scholars — Richard Falk, Professor Emeritus of International Law Princeton University who, from 2008 to 2014, also served as UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Palestinian territories occupied since 1967, and Virginia Tilley, Professor of Political Science at Southern Illinois University and author of Beyond Occupation: Apartheid Colonialism and International Law in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Carefully worded, incisively analysed and succinctly articulated, the report is a significant milestone in the endeavour to understand one of the longest political conflicts in modern times.

Using international human rights law as a basis, the report provides ample evidence to show why Israel practises apartheid in various facets of governance. Land policy is one example. Land occupied by Israel between 1948 and 1967 can only be owned and used by Jews and by law excludes non-Jews some of whom have documentary claims to the land that go back a few centuries.

An even more insidious mechanism employed by the Israeli regime to exercise control and domination is the fragmentation of the Palestinian population into various categories. The authors of the report call them ‘domains.’

Domain 1 comprises those who are citizens of the state of Israel. They receive inferior social services, limited budget allocations, and are subjected to restrictions on jobs and professional opportunities. They live in segregated residential areas and are aware that access to public benefits are by and large reserved for those who qualify as citizens under the Citizenship Law and the Law of Return, meaning by which Jews. This creates a system of covert racism and renders Palestinians second-class citizens.

Domain 2, also under Israeli rule, is made up of Palestinian residents of occupied East Jerusalem. They are also victims of discrimination like their counterparts in Domain 1. They have limited access to good educational and health care facilities. In addition, a Palestinian resident of East Jerusalem can have his residency revoked if he cannot prove that Jerusalem is his “centre of life.” Between 1996 and 2014, residency was revoked for more than 11,000 Palestinians.

Palestinians living in Gaza and the West Bank, territories occupied by Israel since 1967, would constitute Domain 3. They are governed by military law. Though Hamas has limited authority over Gaza, it is Israel that has exclusive control over its borders. And since 2007, Israel has imposed a blockade upon Gaza that affects all aspects of life in that tiny peninsula. While the residents of both West Bank and Gaza are subject to military law, the 350,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank are governed by Israeli civil law. This dual legal system underscores stark racial discrimination which manifests itself in many other ways. In contrast to the parlous state of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza, Jewish settlements continue to flourish. Jews from all over the world are offered various incentives to move to these well-endowed settlements,including employment guarantees, agricultural subsidies, school grants and special recreational facilities.

Unlike the first three domains, Palestinians in Domain 4 are the only ones who are not under Israeli control. These are Palestinians who are refugees from the wars and expulsions since 1948 and their descendants who have been living outside original Palestine, in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt and a number of other countries in West Asia and North Africa (WANA). There are some who for generations have been staying in Europe and North America. All of them are affected by one vital dimension of Israeli policy. They are barred from returning home. While they are prohibited from returning to the land of their ancestors, a Jew who does not have the flimsiest link to Israel or Palestine is encouraged to settle down in these territories. This is yet another blatant example of apartheid.

The report prepared by Falk and Tilley argues eloquently that the emergence of the domains and the apartheid practised by various Israeli governments cannot be separated from the desire and the drive in the Zionist movement from the turn of the 20th century to establish an exclusive Jewish state in Palestine. Bringing in Jewish immigrants long before the Israeli state was created, the wars, the expulsions and the laws to prevent Palestinians from returning to their land were all part of that mission. Indeed, there has been deliberate ethnic cleansing of Palestine — a point which has been elaborated with much lucidity by the outstanding Israeli historian, Ilan Pappe in his ground breaking book, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine.

In its conclusion, the Falk-Tilley report establishes, “on the basis of scholarly inquiry and overwhelming evidence that Israel is guilty of the crime of apartheid.” It then proposes that an international tribunal examine the report and make an assessment that will be truly authoritative. If such an authoritative assessment concurs with the finding of the report, the UN and its agencies, regional outfits and national governments should act. They have a collective duty to de-legitimise an apartheid regime and render it illegal. They cannot allow such a regime to continue.

The report also urges civil society groups and non-state actors to step up their campaign against apartheid Israel. Some of them are already doing quite a bit through the Boycott, Divest and Sanctions (BDS) movement. They should organise and mobilise much more through the alternative media.

That the media has given so little attention to the contents of the report on apartheid Israel is an indication of the power and influence of the states and vested interests that do not want the truth about Israel to be known to the world. This is what we have to struggle against in order to ensure that truth triumphs and justice is done to the people of Palestine.

Dr. Chandra Muzaffar is the President of the International Movement for a Just World (JUST). Malaysia.

Source: Apartheid Israel

Handouts for Legislative Front

Time to popularise this innovative terminology:
“By the way, just by way of information, I like the construct of “erased families” as an informal description of the pathology – and I find the meme of “erased families” to be an extremely powerful graphic image. At a semi-formal level, I like the construct of “obstructed bonding” as a description of the pathology construct. It carries the fundamental construct without the historical baggage of “parental alienation.” At the professional level, I like the constructs of “pathological mourning” and “cross-generational coalition” as the formal mental health constructs for defining the pathology. At the child abuse protection level, the construct is pathogenic parenting. At the level of professional expertise, we should be talking about the trans-generational transmission of attachment trauma.”

Dr. Craig Childress: Attachment Based "Parental Alienation" (AB-PA)

I have just posted two new handouts to my website (www.drcachildress.org), up at the top of the “Parental Alienation” section.

The first one (Legislative Changes: Child Psychological Abuse) describes the rationale for proposed changes to mandated child abuse reporting laws in a letter format from me that targeted parents can provide to their state representatives.

The second handout (Description of Disordered Mourning Pathology) is a description of the attachment-related pathology of “parental alienation” from the attachment perspective of pathological mourning – linking this construct to the personality disorder pathology of the parent.  This description also links to the construct of pathogenic parenting, and leads to the identification of the three diagnostic indicators of AB-PA and the DSM-5 diagnosis of V995.51 Child Psychological Abuse, Confirmed.

The Legislative Change letter is a fully stand-alone handout. The Pathological Mourning Description handout can be a helpful supportive…

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