How will the universe end? When will that happen? | QUORA, , Amateur Scientist.
Edit: Thank you for 662 upvotes. I was aiming for ten only. I’m glad you enjoyed my answer, as I spent five to six hours doing the research and putting them together. Slow, I know, but it makes your appreciation so much more valuable. Thank you all! All your positive and neutral comments really make me happy.
I would say that the Big Freeze scenario is the most likely, as the Universe keeps expanding on forever, and ever, and ever, and ever, until nothing but sub-atomic particles remain. I’m no real expert in this field and there are plenty of answers here which explain Universe Death much better than I do, so I will just take a different route of answer and give you a hypothetical way the Earth and the Universe will end. I already wrote down this answer in the question:, so I’ll just copy-paste the answer here.
Sources:, , (diff one), The Universe Death Clock (video)
There are quite a couple of scenarios of the ultimate fate of the Universe, with most stating it will end, although there is a theory that the Universe will just keep going on forever and ever. I will not talk about how humanity would advance, just the effects on Earth and the Universe. For this case, I will take the Big Freeze scenario, as it is the most likely. I’ll be going through the important events that may occur on Earth and in the Universe. Ready? Let’s go!!
One Thousand(1000) Years Later
By the time a thousand years pass, most of our languages would be gone, forgotten and never spoken ever again. Any language that does survive will have been changed so much it would never sound the same to us, and the grammar and words we use now will be gone in this time, like how we view Shakespeare’s English.
Two Thousand(2000) Years Later
Global Warming would still be going on and the Earth’s temperature would have risen by 8°C. The ice sheets and glaciers in Greenland mostly melt away, rising sea levels by 6 metres, potentially disastrous for low-lying poor countries.
Thirteen Thousand(13,000) Years Later
Earth’s axial tilt will reverse, and along with it, seasons. Northern hemispheric winter starts in June. The Northern hemisphere will suffer from extreme weather since there is more land above the equator. Either we live with it, or migration to the Southern hemisphere begins. Carbon dioxide levels are dropping slowly. According to Carter’s Doomsday argument, humanity has a 95% chance of being extinct, although in this case, I will take this as perhaps false.
Twenty Thousand(20,000) Years Later
Chernobyl becomes habitable once more. Yayyyyy! I just wanted to leave this here.
Twenty-Five Thousand(25,000) Years Later
The Arecibo Message, a collection of radio data transmitted on 16 November 1974, reaches the distance of its destination, the globular cluster Messier 13, at the far side of the galaxy. Any alien race that manages to receive the message will know that they are not alone. The reply message will only be received by us 25000 years later. The northern polar ice cap on Mars will recede due to a warming period. Human colonists on Mars could expand north if they still exist.
Thirty Thousand(30,000) Years Later
All fission-based breeder reactor reserves run out, forcing humans to swap to another energy source.
Fifty Thousand(50,000) Years Later
The Niagara Falls would have eroded the remaining 32 km to Lake Erie and have vanished. The global temperature would have increased by another 2°C, completely melting away all the ice in Greenland. According to Berger and Loutre, Earth plunges into another ice age despite global warming. This ice age could possibly be delayed by constant burning of fossil fuels. If any aliens have replied, we would receive the Arecibo Reply by this time.
Eighty-Five Thousand(85,000) Years Later
By this time, it is safe to assume that the World will have completely changed by this time. If humanity hasn’t been wiped out, no nation, religion or way of life will be the same. There would be new factions or hopefully a World Coalition Government, with no countries left. Religions like Judaism and Christianity that have persisted for so long would have been forgotten and given way to new religions, or religion may no longer be existent.
One Hundred Thousand(100,000) Years Later
VY Canis Majoris will explode into the largest hypernova seen in the Universe, probably even visible from Earth. Earth would most likely suffer a Supervolcanic eruption, likely the Yellowstone Caldera, that will hurl ash into the sky, blocking out sunlight and lowering temperatures, causing a global disaster. Titanium begins to corrode away. By this time, should humanity have the technology and the survival, terraforming of Mars will near its ending phases, with a now oxygen-rich atmosphere. I predict that most of humanity will live on Mars by now.
Two Hundred and Ninety-Six Thousand(296,000) Years Later
Voyager 2 passes within 4.3 light years of Sirius. Any intelligent aliens will probably recover it and find the Golden Record and realise that they…are not alone.
Five Hundred Thousand(500,000) Years Later
Earth is struck by a 1 km asteroid, that has an impact of 6 × 10^4 megatons, equivalent to an earthquake of magnitude 9.4 on the Richter scale. This isn’t an extinction event, not even close, but causes significant damage to Earth’s environment and could wipe out any humans still living on Earth. If we have just kept burning fossil fuels, the ice age can be delayed till this time. Spent nuclear fuel in reactors would also be safe by this time.
One Million(1,000,000) Years Later
Glass left on Earth would have fully decomposed by this time, and so will every structure that we have today, except for stone structures like Mount Rushmore or the Pyramids of Giza, although the Pyramids would probably be unrecognisable. Nearly everything we left on the Moon will also be gone. Humanity, if still alive, would have spread throughout the galaxy. This is the shortest time it will take for humans to colonise the Milky Way.
Two Million(2,000,000) Years Later
Coral Reefs will finally physically rebuild and biologically recover from current human-caused ocean acidification. The Grand Canyon will further erode into a wide valley.
Seven point Two Million(7,200,000) Years Later
Mount Rushmore erodes away. Basically nothing left of human civilisation will be left, except for our trash. There will be little trace of any intelligent species that lived here. If aliens finally visit after receiving a message or info, they may find nothing.
Ten Million(10,000,000) Years Later (Mass Extinction)
Earth is hit by a Gamma Ray Burst from the supernova of nearby star T Pyxidis that irradiates the planet, destroys the ozone layer and triggers a mass extinction. Funny, seeing how ten million years is the time it takes for the Earth to recover from the Holocene extinction that humans cause. So Earth went from one mass extinction to another. The East African Rift Valley is flooded, causing a new ocean basin to divide Africa.
Twenty-Seven Million(27,000,000) Years Later
By this time, Homo Sapiens will go extinct and what remains of humans will be another step in evolution. Humans, having spread into space, may split into different species due to going separate ways through the cosmos, possibly leading to wars between different species of future humans. By this time, humanity will have advanced so far that things like nuclear fusion and basic space flight will be practically primitive to them and they may scoff at us working so hard to land a rocket.
Fifty Million(50,000,000) Years Later
By this time, if humanity did indeed set out to colonise the Milky Way, this is the time when we would have finally conquered the galaxy, presumably exterminating life and waging wars against aliens inside the Milky Way. Europe and Africa collide and merge to form one continent, allowing animals to cross and spread. Indonesia and Australia also merge together at roughly the same time. Many mountain peaks start to erode, and Earth starts to draw to a close. It would still take hundreds of millions of years, but Earth starts to slowly die. The Universe however, is nowhere close to ending yet. Antarctica, moving North, finally melts all of its ice, raising seas worldwide by 75 metres, causing massive floods in practically every region. Mars, will have its moon, Phobos, smash into it, potentially causing a mass extinction of any Martian life that exists after terraforming and if still colonised, perhaps human colonies too. However, there is the possibility that this is averted. I’m not here to say what the tech prowess is for future us.
One Hundred Million(100,000,000) Years Later
Earth will likely be hit by a huge asteroid, similar in size to the one that caused the KT Extinction that killed the dinosaurs. With likely no humans left on Earth, this asteroid will not be deflected and can potentially cause a mass extinction…again. Earth’s orbit will no longer be nearly uniform, but rather completely random, having devastating impacts on Earth’s climate and ecosystem. Saturn’s rings will have disappeared and according to Drake’s Equation, this will be the furthest humans will ever get with an advanced civilisation.
Two Hundred and Fifty Million(250,000,000) Years Later
Due to tectonic plate movement, all continents on Earth will have joined in one of three configurations: Amasia, Novopangaea and Pangaea Ultima
The supercontinent most likely split 500 million years from now
Six Hundred Million(600,000,000) Years Later (Earth Starts to End)
The Sun has increasing luminosity (something with carbonate-silicate cycle or something, sorry bad chemist) and water starts to evaporate, rocks harden and plate tectonics screech to a stop. Without this, no more volcanoes exist, thus causing carbon dioxide levels drop. This eventually renders C3 photosynthesis impossible and kickstarts the greatest extinction in history, with around 99% of plant life dying. No plants=no herbivores=no carnivores.
Eight Hundred Million(800,000,000) Years Later (Extinction)
Carbon dioxide levels continue to plunge until C4 photosynthesis is no longer possible. Free oxygen and ozone disappear from the atmosphere. Every multicellular lifeform dies, leaving only unicellular organisms remaining on a now desolate and barren world. I would assume that most intelligent life in the Universe will begin dying off by 1 billion years into the future.
One Billion(1,000,000,000) Years Later
Ignore the clouds
The Sun’s luminosity would have increased by 10%, causing Earth’s surface temperature to be 47°C. The atmosphere will become a “moist greenhouse”, resulting in a runaway evaporation of the oceans. This turns Earth into a dry, arid planet and many unicellular organisms that require water to live, die off. Pockets of water may still be present at the poles, allowing some simple unicellular organisms to live on. This is also the estimated time needed for an astroengineering project to finish to drag Earth away from the brighter Sun, but I find it unlikely that our descendants survived this long, and would most likely have abandoned Earth. The Golden Records of the two Voyager spacecraft lose all their information. Aliens will never find out about Earth again.
One point Three Billion(1,300,000,000) Years Later
Carbon dioxide runs out. Every cell with a nucleus perishes, leaving only cells without nuclei left on the barren ruined world once called Earth. Mars could potentially become habitable without the need of human terraforming a few million years after this.
Two point Three Billion(2,300,000,000) Years Later
The outer core of the Earth freezes as it loses heat out to space and the inner core keeps growing. The Earth stops spinning and the magnetic field shuts down and the now unprotected remnants of the atmosphere is depleted by the Sun.
Two point Eight Billion(2,800,000,000) Years Later (RIP LIFE ON EARTH)
Earth’s surface temperature hits a 149°C. This combined with a lack of atmosphere finally kills all life on Earth. Nothing survives this. The Earth will no longer sustain unicellular, non-nuclei-containing organisms. The ‘heartbeat’ of the Earth flatlines.
Four Billion(4,000,000,000) Years Later
The Milky Way Galaxy collides with the larger Andromeda Galaxy and will eventually, tens of millions of years later, merge to form ‘Milkomeda’, probably the dumbest name ever. The collision could potentially disrupt the orbits of hundreds of millions or billions of stars and their planets. The Solar System will also be sent flying from its original position, but is expected to be relatively unaffected.
Five point Four Billion(5,400,000,000) Years Later
The Sun’s hydrogen supply at its core is finally exhausted, the Sun starts to evolve into a Red Giant and expands outwards towards the Inner Planets. In a few billion years, the Earth and Mars will become tidally locked and have their surfaces superheated and scorched.
Seven point Nine Billion(7,900,000,000) Years Later
The Sun reaches its maximum radius, 256 times its normal, and consumes and destroys Mercury and Venus. Earth’s Moon breaks up into debris which fall down into the desolate Earth, which is then either consumed or fully scorched. Mars would probably not be consumed, but would not be habitable. It is theorised that Saturn’s moon Titan can support life now.
Eight Billion(8,000,000,000) Years Later
The Sun shrinks back to into a White Dwarf, with about 54.05 percent its present mass. If Earth has not been destroyed, the scorching temperatures will drop rapidly, as with the temperature of every other celestial body in the Solar System. All that’s left of the Solar System is a few cold, bleak planets and moons with no capability to support any form of life ever again.
Fourteen point Four Billion(14,400,000,000) Years Later
After a few billion years as a White Dwarf, the Sun converts into a Black Dwarf, with low temperatures and practically zero luminosity, turning invisible to the eye. It is now nothing but a cold, dark carbon ball. The Sun thus ends its long lifespan. However, there are a large number of scientists who believe that it would take a quadrillion years for the White Dwarf to turn into a Black Dwarf.
One Hundred Billion(100,000,000,000) Years Later
With the Big Freeze scenario, the Universe keeps on expanding. This causes all galaxies beyond the Milky Way/Milkomeda’s Local Group to disappear beyond the observable Universe. It is very likely that any intelligent species that somehow manages to arise at this time will never see another major group of galaxies ever again, and may even conclude that their local galaxy group is the only thing in the Universe. By this point, the Big Bang is no longer detectable, perhaps causing any intelligent species left to believe that the Universe had no beginning and maybe no end. Local galaxies also start to merge together.
One Trillion(1,000,000,000,000) Years Later
No new stars will ever be produced as the gas clouds needed to form them no longer exist in the lonely giant galaxies floating around. Stars slowly, one-by-one die out and the sky turns black, leaving the planets still floating around the dark. The Local Group finishes merging together and it would be the only thing floating in space as everything else is too far away.
Thirty Trillion(30,000,000,000,000) Years Later
Stars in their stellar neighbourhoods start undergoing close encounters with other stars, disrupting the orbits of stars and their planets, sending both the planets and moons, and stars flying out of the galaxies entirely. These stars will go hurtling through the now empty cosmos, alone forever until they die.
One Hundred Trillion(100,000,000,000,000) Years Later
By this time, absolutely no free hydrogen existing to try to form new stars. The Universe enters what is known as the ‘Degenerate Era’.
One Hundred and Twenty Trillion(120,000,000,000,000) Years Later
Almost every existing star in the Universe finally burns out and they die off, with the Red Dwarfs the last to go. The only things left in the Universe would be Brown Dwarves, White Dwarves, Neutron Stars and Black Holes, which will then slowly, very slowly, die off in that order. The only real bright lights are supernovas when these stars collide.
A Neutron Star, that will be one of the last things in the Universe
One Hundred Quintillion Years Later
Well over 90% of all the aforementioned celestial bodies have already been ejected out of the slowly dispersing galaxies that are also being consumed by Black Holes. Most of everything is now solitary, never to see anything else again. The Solar System is finally destroyed when every planet collides with the Black Dwarf that was the Sun, which then decays away or is consumed by a black hole.
One Nonillion Years Later
Every star still not ejected is consumed by the Supermassive Black Holes, along with every galaxy still not dispersed yet. Only solitary objects manage to survive the Supermassive Black Holes. The Brown Dwarves still won’t die until many, many quintillion years later.
Most of the Universe is gone, but the Universe isn’t even halfway through its full lifespan yet.
3×10^43 Years Later
Every Brown Dwarf, White Dwarf and Neutron Star has already decayed away into nothingness by this point, leaving only Black Holes in the entire Universe. These dark celestial objects will remain for far longer than one thinks. The Universe still isn’t halfway through. In fact, Black Holes probably last longer than every other celestial object combined.
1.342×10^99 Years Later
Almost every Black Hole has already dissipated due to the emission of Hawking radiation, living just one gargantuan Supermassive Black Hole left, already dissipating away as well.
One Googol(1×10^100) Years Later
The last Black Hole has finally died. There is absolutely nothing left in the Universe other than sub-atomic particles. The Universe continues to expand further and further away, spreading these sub-atomic particles so thin, that they will never, ever, interact with another particle ever again. The Universe hits a tiny bit above absolute zero. Nothing left.
Just a cold, black void for an eternity…
Nobody knows for sure how and when the universe will end. It’s challenging — to say the least — to predict outcomes that are many orders of magnitude further into the future than all the time that has come before us. If some “wild card” exception to the currently-understood laws of physics does not appear, then entropy will ceaselessly increase. All of the energy and matter will have become so disordered and spread-out through the then massive cosmos that it will be unreachable. Time, which is measured by the movement of matter and energy, will no longer be possible and will effectively cease to pass. This is called “the heat death” of the universe.
This will only happen after the red dwarfs, then neutron stars burn out. Even atoms, over very long spans of time will break down to hydrogen. Even the neutrons will fly away from there nuclei. Even the electrons will be lost. Then after all the light-giving sources fade (the neutron stars) the universe will enter its longest phase, many orders of magnitude longer than the 100 trillion years that came before it, as only black holes will remain. But even they will bleed away into space and fade. If nothing stops it, the heat death of the universe will not occur until something like 10,000-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion years into the future. More years than atoms in the universe!
The really important phase where ordered life is possible–the stelliferous era– will last something like 100 billion to a trillion years. We’re just getting started!
4 Ways The Universe Might End
If there’s one thing scientists love discussing more than the beginning of the universe, it’s the end. There are literally hundreds of known stellar events that could obliterate the life on our planet before we even knew what hit us. Thein Russia kind of cemented that fact; however, the chances of Earth suffering a life-ending global catastrophe are actually rather slim.
But we know that it is coming. At the very least, it will happen when the sun transitions into a red giant.
The end of everything else though, is a little bit more difficult to predict; however, that won’t stop scientists from speculating and theorizing. With this in mind, here are four popular theories on how the universe might end.
Note: Astrophysicists believe that the ultimate fate of the universe depends on three things: 1) The universe’s overall shape 2) Its density and 3) How much dark energy the universe is truly made of. The first two scenarios hinge on the universe existing in a “flat” or “open” system (one that is negatively curved, similar to the surface of a saddle.
4) The Big Rip
I’m sure many of you are familiar with dark energy and, more specifically, the role it plays in the accelerated expansion of the universe. One theory of how the universe could potentially end relies on the assumption that the expansion of the universe will continue indefinitely until the galaxies, stars, planets, and matter (potentially even the subatomic building blocks that comprise all matter) can no longer hold themselves together; so they rip apart. This theory is called “The Big Rip” and it could result in your next door neighbor (or cat) being ripped apart too.
In this model, if the universe’s density is found to be less than(the boundary value between open models that expand forever, and closed models that re-collapse), the expansion of the universe will continue, as well as the accelerating expansion that is driving the galaxies apart at high-speeds. If the density of the universe ever becomes equal to its critical density, it will continue to expand, but the expansion would eventually start to decrease gradually. Finally, if the critical density were to become greater than the density of the universe, the expansion would halt and the universe would start to collapse back in on itself, resulting in a gravitational singularity: one that could ultimately trigger the next “big bang.”
According to Robert Caldwell, a professional from Dartmouth college, if the big rip won out over all of the apocalyptic scenarios put forth in this piece, the event would occur in some odd 22 billion years, when the sun has already transitioned from a main-sequence star to a red-giant, potentially incinerating Earth as a result, and turned into a white dwarf.
But if Earth did manage to survive intact, the planet would explode about 30 minutes before.
3: The Big Freeze
Another popular apocalyptic (which doesn’t quite seem appropriate given the magnitude of the implications) scenario for the end of the universe that relies on deciphering the true nature of dark energy is “” (also referred to as “Heat Death” or “The Big Chill”). In this scenario, the universe continues to expand at an ever increasing speed. As this happens, the heat is dispersed throughout space as clusters, galaxies, stars and planets are all pulled apart.
It will continue to get colder and colder until the temperature throughout the universe reaches absolute zero (or a point at which, the universe can no longer be exploited to perform work). Similarly, if the expansion of the universe continues, planets, stars and galaxies are pulled so far apart that the stars would eventually lose access to raw material needed for star formation, thus the lights inevitably go out for good.
This is the point at which the universe would reach a maximum
Eventual fate of our universe depends upon overall energy contents and shape of the universe. Three possible scenarios are possible – Big rip, Big crunch and Big bounce –.
According to our current understanding, our universe is flat and we are in a regime of accelerated expansion. This accelerated expansion is being driven by a mysterious energy called ‘Dark Energy’ (which sometimes is represented as ) and for dark energy and matter in the universe respectively. These two add up to 1. Current measurements show thatand So we can clearly see that our universe is dominated by dark energy right now and our current understanding states that it will continue to accelerate and expand forever.. The amount of Dark energy or matter content in the universe is given through cosmological density parameters which are
There are many problems with this question. First of all: what is the Universe? We know only what we can observe. We can observe only a continuum in distance about 42 billion light years, and only handful of particles: photons, electrons, proton, neutrons and neutrinos. We know that there is more: we know that Universe is larger, possibly much larger. We know that there are particles and forces that we can not observe directly: dark matter and dark energy. We know that our current understanding of physics is incomplete. But what is the area of our ignorance? Maybe Universe is inifinitely large? Maybe it has additional dimensions? Maybe there are particles and forces even more exotic than dark matter and dark energy, that we still do not know about? Maybe there are laws of physics that we were unable to observe yet, because they manifest only in timespans of orders larger than 10^50 years?
All of what we can predict is an extrapolation of our current knowledge. We can extrapolate that after several trillion years all stars will burn out and Universe become dark. After 10^80 years all matter will decay, and only black holes remain, and after 10^100 years black holes also evaporate, leaving Universe consisting only of photons.
But these extrapolations are not justified. Our known laws of physics are not valid in such timespans, just like they are invalid inside black hole. Imagine for example that there exist a physical process that violates conservation of energy: each particle is duplicating itself every 10^60 years. Such phenomena would be completely undetectable for us, because it would mean that so far, since Earth formation probably only 1 Earth atom duplicated itself. But when we extrapolate into the future, then within 10^70 years this process would dominate in the Universe. Exponential growth of number of particles would fill Universe with matter, creating new stars and black holes, reversing Universe expansion etc. This shows that our predictions might be totally wrong because we do not know the crucial facts.
This is only one example. There is infinite number of possible laws and phenomenas that might determine Universe future. All of we can say is that Universe will last for many trillions of years. After that we must simply admit that its future is unknown to us.
Some fine answers here, just want to add a particuarly favorite speculation.
Robert Caldwell of Dartmouth College is the leading proponent of a theory popularly called “The Big Rip”.
Basically, it states that at the present rate of expansion, the universe, in about 20 billion years or so, will begin to experience the opposite of the Big Bang.
What is thought to happen is that all matter and energy in the universe will begin to break apart, in stages. First, the super clusters of galaxies will break apart, then the galaxies themselves. Eventally, all planetary systems, planets and stars, and, finally, all molecules, atoms and subatomic particles.
It sounds pretty far out, but considering how little we know anyway, it is just as valid as anything else on the table.
A really interesting question! There are different theories and hypothesis on how the universe will end but it is really very difficult to tell when.
Four scenarios by which the universe could end:
The Big Rip:
It says that dark energy keeps pulling the universe apart at an ever accelerating speed, until everything in the universe including atom, pull itself apart. Big Rip models are allowed, but not preferred because they need a heck of understanding about dark energy. So, it is not that plausible.
The Big crunch:
In this model, it is believed that by something magic the expansion of universe will stop. What a relief! But now it will begin to collapse in on itself into a crunch, triggering for next potential bang.
This argument was put forward before we discovered that expansion of universe was accelerating. A Big Crunch now seems very unlikely, because you’d need dark energy – i.e., whatever is causing the acceleration – to turn off and then something other to cause collapse. I don’t know if gravity will be able to do that on its own.
The Big Slurp:
Okay, this is crazy! It could happen as you are reading this or it could happen in billions of years. Unlike the other scenarios, this does not require much time to bring an end to the universe. The theory behind it is meta stability in vacuum because of the number 126-ish eV that we got for the mass of higgs boson. I don’t know about any update made on this.
The Big Freeze:
It is the most plausible scenario. If the expansion of the universe continues. Every galaxy move away from one another. They will be so far that no light can travel from one galaxy to another. Eventually, the fuel of stars will run out. There will be no usable energy left. This is how it says the universe will end.
The fact is that the universe won’t last there forever. Fortunately the galactic finale is billions of years away. In the mean time- Keep lookin’ up!
Whether it collapses or not, the universe probably doesn’t have an edge any more than the 2D surface of a ball has an edge.
EDIT:properly pointed out that my answer falls short. So here’s more:
For the sake of being able to see the universe from the outside, let’s make it a 2D universe instead of a 3D universe. So a piece of paper, for example, could be a universe. It has edges and a center. If it were to contract to a point, the edges would retract and collapse onto the center as posed in the question detail.
Now stretch the piece of paper, joining the corners and edges so it forms a sphere. This 2D universe now has no edge and no center, just as the surface of a ball has no center or edge. It can expand and contract like a balloon without its edges advancing and receding, and if it contracts to nothing, every point on the surface of a contracting ball’s surface reaches the singularity at the same time. So every point on the 2D surface of a sphere is essentially the center point.
Just as this 2D universe is the surface of a 3D sphere, so too might our 3D universe be the surface of a 4D sphere (to take one of many possibilities). Like the sphere-surface 2D universe, it is not infinite even though it has no bounds or edges. And every point in our universe is essentially the center.
The universe itself? No.
But the contents of the universe are likely to come to an end. If the expansion of the universe is so great that matter cannot exist, that would certainly count as and end in my book.
More about the possible ends here:on Wikipedia.
Our universe is destined to end it’s current session. I know not which session this is, but that it’ll revive again into another universe just like ours if the quantum fluctuations that ever occurred are the same as last time.
The group o’ multiverses we live in, well..our instantaneous version of our universe – that exists – is also destined to die and revive again, but that’s just a theory. What do I know of grander things?..:)
Worry about your life, and death, mortal. You’re a human being and humans are extremely short lived. Worry about your legacy, your civilization. Live and act as much as you can to push the Human Race forward so that, if lucky you’ll be alive again to do the same things in the Universe’s next session.
Good question. Some experiments have been done and it looks like the proton has a very, very long lifetime, like more than 10^33 years. That is longer than the class periods in high school seemed.
Electrons can’t decay according to the basic laws, there would have to be a lighter particle with charge that it could decay to, and there doesnt seem to be one.
So ptotons and electrons are probably going to stick around. Now whether they will all get sucked into a black hole is another question.
 This is very important question interesting question, ever one what to know to when universe will end and when will that happen. Only god know when this universe end when will that happen. The universe is so beautiful and I found the website where million of stars showing this is amazing site 3d universe pictures and star. I recommend to all my friends to visit the site and watch the 3d universe because this really amazing.
I would like to disseminate the religious explanation with some scientific evidence. (I know, this answer is an open call for downvotes and extremely obnoxious comments, I welcome it unbiased, everyone has freedom to reject and accept).
I agree withthat nobody knows when the universe will end, but it’s given clearly in Religious books that how it will end and there will be signs that will warn mankind about the coming hour. As much as, it is mentioned about the beginning of Universe.
“Do not the Unbelievers see That the heavens and the earth
Were joined together (as one Unit of Creation), before We clove them
asunder?” (Quran 21:30) this verse clearly indicates that the heaven and Earth (thus the universe) where once joined together, and then split apart.
Similarly, Big bang theory states that all the matter in the universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point; that exploded and brought about the beginning of the universe.
Thus is mentioned about the expansion of universe:
“And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it.”(Quran, 51:47)
Astronomers have discovered that the universe is in continuous motion, and that it is expanding. This was discovered by studying the galaxies and distant celestial bodies. The American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher, who studied the spectra of galaxies, noticed that the spectral lines of a few nearby systems were shifted toward longer wavelengths. This shift in wave-length showed that most galaxies were receding from the Milky Way at several hundred kilometers per second! 15
This picture shows that the distances between galaxies or clusters of galaxies are continuously increasing and that therefore the universe is expanding
The American astronomer Edwin Hubble confirmed that the universe was expanding and that the more remote the galaxy the higher was its recession velocity; and that its recession velocity was proportional to its distance.16 With this we see that scholars in astronomy have affirmed that the universe is ever expanding. This expansion will continue until gravity loses its pull and the planets will spread out in the universe, which will result in the end of the world.
This expansion will come to cease
The End of the two worlds
“The day that we roll up
The heavens like scroll
Rolled up for books (completed)”(Quran 21:104)
The end according to this verse is that the universe will come back together again as it was in the beginning. In this verse god is giving an example of how the universe will end and it is clear that this verse indicates that the universe will look like a sheet of paper
“Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang, Maxima, and DASI, have shown that the brightest spots are about 1 degree across. Thus the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. We now know that the universe is flat with only a 2% margin of error.”
Quran, Chapter 81: The folding up, provides insight into the end of the worlds.
“When the sun with its spacious light
is folded up,
When the star fall losing their lustre;
When the mountain vanish like a mirage;
When the she camel,
Ten months with young,
are left unattended,
When the wild beast are herded together
In human habitations
When the oceans boil over with a swell;
When the souls are sorted out, (being joined like with like);
When the female (infant),
Buried alive, is questioned-
For what crime she was killed;
When the scroll are led open,
When the sky is unveiled;
When the blazing fire is kindled to fierce heat;
and when the garden is brought near;
Then shall each soul know
What it has put forward.”
Quran: Chapter no. 82; The cleaving asunder; verse 1,2 and 3
“When the sky is cleft asunder
When the stars are scattered
When the oceans are suffered to burst forth”
Surely, It will end!
In the creation of heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are indeed Signs for men of understanding.”
[Aale Imran 3:190].
Only thing scientist knows for sure is that the universe is expanding and causing our solar system and others to move away from each other at a relatively fast pace (astronomically speaking – kind of like the Niagara falls is being eroded at 1 cm a year roughly). In turn, we may or may not crash with another solar system (our solar system was created by the crashing of two molecular nebulas). Expansion can happen indefinitely some scientists say, and as we expand, anti-matter may or may not make up more of the universe than today, which may have some unknown effect on stars, galaxies, planetary systems, black holes etc. Some scientist believe that anti-matter is what is pushing expansion (ie. by pushing matter away from each other). This may take 100 trillion trillion years. There is a lot of questions and our understanding of our universe is no where near enough to provide a concrete answer.
The one thing we know for sure, is the life span of our solar system – the death of our star, ie our sun, which is said to already be 1/3 into its life span. So we need not worry about the end of the universe, and only hope, humans (if there still are by then) have already colonized not only other planets by other younger solar systems.
A theory that I support, based on own opinions and thoughts is: how did the universe start? assuming that no universe is no particles or anything. What was the trigger of something to appear. from total nothing, on a certain moment (god knows what triggered that certain moment and why on that certain time). Therefore we can assume this is impossible, and therefore I think the universe lasts infinitely. As it’s very hard as shown above to prescribe a start to universe, an ending is also excluded, as every end has a start, right? But of course we have found several evidence about a big bang so doesn’t that conclude the universe once started? Well, I think that the universe actually pulses. Big bang, big shrink, big bang, big shrink ∞. Of course it sounds very strange and counter-intuitive but taking into account that time is a dimension and therefore is much more dynamic and flexible as we think it appears the theory might actually make sense.
- If this infinite pulse is actually the case, this conversation would have already taken place, infinitely much. As no external influence could make this big bang any different from a previous or future big bang.
Scientists have come up with a theory on how the Universe might end called ‘The Big Crunch’.The theory goes like this –
The universe is constantly expanding at an immensely huge speed, as we all know, but soon it would gradually start losing the momentum it gained from the moment the Big Bang happened. In that case, it would slow down over a long, long period of time, come to a stop, and instead of pushing backwards would begin to get pulled back together. Ultimately, the Universe would end up in a singularity once more.
Of course, this is only theory. Another one is that the Universe may never lose its momentum, and that it will continue to expand forever. Scientists believe that the latter is more likely. In which case, we can only guess what fate awaits our Universe.
The universe, as least what we can see, will experience entropy and will adhere to the second law of thermodynamics by having all of the plasma and fusion burn out. All objects, big or small, will be lifeless rocks aimlessly flying throughout the universe because the object that used to be holding them in orbit loses its heat and therefore, gravity. This scenario would have the black holes burning out last because they are the biggest initial masses. The black holes will also be in much danger since many objects will be flying aimlessly in space.
Nobody knows how the universe will end as per the existing physics. There are three possibilities:
(i). Universe will expand forever.
(ii).Universe will stop to expand at some point of time in future.
(iii) . Universe will not only stop but begin to contract.
Note: Then there are theoretical possibilities of parallel universes and the universe going through cycles of birth (Big Bang) and death (Super Crunch) again and again. But these are only theoretical guesses.
To most of scientist it will end up by shrinking till there is nothing to shrink so its like reverse big bang and it will probably end when the universe is bigger than ever so big that the distance between matters are colossal that every single matter is alone so the universe will be extremely cold even it can be 0 kelvin. Because of that the universe will shrink.
For those who fear suffering through the process of dying … being terrified, enduring agonizing pain, depression, hopelessness, feeling useless, making those around you suffer, etc. I offer you this scenario to ease your fears, and free you to focus all your attention on enjoying all that life has to offer …
Only three restrictions:
- To the best of your ability, do nothing to harm others. They are no different than you. Their ‘right’ to enjoy to the fullest all that life has to offer is identical to yours. There will be times when you do cause others to suffer. It is part of the human condition. Ending a relationship, for example, when the other person does not want it to end. Some pain is unavoidable.
- Killing is acceptable only when no other alternative is possible in defense of yourself or in defense of others. Killing out of fear, in the belief that it is possible your life, or the lives of others could be in danger is not acceptable.
- As it is impossible to know when the end will come, do nothing that will deprive future generations. Do nothing that will diminish the beauty of this planet, for it may be the only habitat humans will ever occupy.
It is possible earth will cease to exist instantaneously.
At this very moment, a black hole could be heading toward us.
We don’t know if a black hole is subject to the normal laws of space.
We don’t know if they are limited in linear velocity.
In other words, black holes could move through space at speeds well beyond light speed.
If a black hole of quadrillions or quintillions of solar masses was approaching earth at 1,000 times the speed of light, we would never see it coming.
No telescopes would detect it in the past, because the evidence of the destruction it caused would not have reached us.
If this black hole swept through our solar system at such a velocity, everything would be ‘normal’ … then in 1/1,000 of a second every atom in the solar system … including the atoms of our bodies … would become part of the central mass of the black hole.
We would have no warning. No awareness of the transition. No pain. No fear. No suffering of any kind.
Our entire solar system (and every living being) would simply vanish.
I can’t think of a better way to die.
Some scientists say that the universe will expand continuously . Some scientists say that one day the universe stop expanding and matters collide each other known as the “big crunch” and universe will die