Prof. Francis A. Boyle: Hidden documents over true borders of Israel + Palestine!

The hidden documents that reveal the true borders of Israel and Palestine (Updated) ~ Mondoweiss,  on November 5, 2014. 

Update:

Prof. Francis A. Boyle sent along the following correction to the post below clarifying the advice he offered Palestinian leadership on borders:

On October  23, 2014 you quoted me as misadvising the Palestinians about Israel’s “borders.” Israel did indeed accept the Partition Resolution 181  and its Borders. But the Palestinians never did. In fact the Palestinians rejected the Partition Resolution. So there were  no mutually  determined borders between Israel and Palestine. For these reasons,  when it came to the drafting of the Palestinian Declaration of Independence of November 15, 1988, for which I served as Legal Adviser, I had advised the PLO not to  accept the Partition Resolution 181 so as to maximize the extent of their territorial demands during the course of peace negotiations with Israel in order to get the maximum compromise possible on land. My advice was not taken.

Original Post:

I once believed that Israel has never defined its borders. It was one of those things that “everyone knows”. I was corrected by the blogger talknic. Mondoweiss is privileged to have talknic as a frequent commenter, and many readers here will be familiar with the document to which he pointed me: the letter written by Eliahu Epstein, the representative of the Jewish Agency in Washington, to President Truman and to the State Department, on May 14, 1948.

Epstein’s letter to Truman

In the letter, the Provisional Government of Israel formally requested the United States to recognize the new State of Israel which was about to be declared in Tel Aviv, effective one minute after midnight (6 p.m Washington time) when the British Mandate over Palestine ended. It begins (my emphasis):

My dear Mr. President, I have the honor to notify you that the State of Israel has been proclaimed as an independent republic within the frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its Resolution of November 29, 1947.

(The full text is given in the link above, and also appears below.) The resolution referred to,UNGA Resolution 181, recommended the partition of Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states. The Zionist leadership had publicly accepted the Partition Plan, and this letter defines the borders of Israel to be those specified in the Plan (see map attached).

As soon as I read the words “proclaimed… within the frontiers…” I knew that I had been fooled by Zionist propaganda. Reflecting further, I realized that the idea of a state without defined borders is actually completely nonsensical. Suppose there were no defined border between Canada and the USA. People would not know in which country they were living; what was their citizenship; whose laws they needed to obey; what currency they could use. It would be chaos. The Montevideo Convention lists the following requirements for the existence of a state: a permanent population; a defined territory; government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states. If Israel had really been declared as a state without borders, it would not have been a state at all.

To understand how the Zionist leadership came to make this border definition, and why later  they tried, very successfully, to convince the world that it never happened, we need to consider events in both Tel Aviv and Washington as the end of the Mandate approached.

Israel’s Declaration of Independence

Israel was reluctant to define its borders. According to an article on the Israel Government website, the Provisional Government of Israel met in Tel Aviv from May 12 to May 14 to consider the draft declaration of independence. It was led by David Ben-Gurion as Prime Minister and Defense Minister.

Partition plan, UN 1947, with '49 armistice delineated

There were heated discussions about the borders. Some said stick to the Partition Plan borders, while Ben-Gurion argued strongly that they should say nothing about the borders, because it was his intention to capture territory outside the Partition Plan borders and include it in the state. His view was accepted by a vote of five to four in favor, with the four other members being absent. This vote is the origin of the story that “Israel has never defined its borders”. Ben-Gurion went home on the evening of May 13 and completely rewrote the draft declaration of independence, removing all references to the Partition Plan.

His motive is clear. He wanted to create the sort of chaotic situation I outlined in my Canada-USA illustration. If there was no defined border between Israel and the rest of Palestine, then all of Palestine could be considered open territory, available for conquest.

On May 14, the Ben-Gurion’s rewritten draft was considered by the National Council, the embryonic parliament of the new state, and was approved unanimously on the second vote: so we know that changes were made. The article does not say what they were, suggesting they were minor in nature. But if we look at the text of the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel we see that the references to the Partition Plan have been restored. Indeed, the Partition Plan is placed at the heart of the Declaration:

WE… BY VIRTUE OF OUR NATURAL AND HISTORIC RIGHT AND ON THE STRENGTH OF THE RESOLUTION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, HEREBY DECLARE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A JEWISH STATE IN ERETZ-ISRAEL, TO BE KNOWN AS THE STATE OF ISRAEL.

Being based on the Partition Plan, the Declaration implicitly defines the borders to be those specified in the Plan, but does not say so explicitly. Since the declaration of a new state is a once-only event, whereas borders can be changed later, the absence of a border definition in the Declaration itself is not significant. It was Epstein’s letter that formally defined Israel’s borders.

Epstein’s telegram to Shertok

Later that day, May 14, after Truman had responded to Epstein’s letter by recognizing Israel, Epstein sent a telegram to Moshe Shertok (later Sharett), Foreign Minister in the Provisional Government of Israel. It tells the dramatic story of how, pledged to secrecy and against a deadline, he came to write the letter to Truman:

  1. United States Government has just recognized State in following language:

“THIS GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN INFORMED THAT A JEWISH STATE HAS BEEN PROCLAIMED IN PALESTINE AND RECOGNITION HAS BEEN REQUESTED BY THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT THEREOF. THE UNITED STATES RECOGNIZES THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT AS THE DE FACTO AUTHORITY OF THE NEW STATE OF ISRAEL.”

  1. Informal conversations with White House representatives have made clear that recognition de facto rather than de jure because announced government provisional in nature.
  2. The surrounding circumstances are as follows. Clark Clifford, White House spokesman, phoned Washington friends advising that the State Department, at noon, May 14, will agree immediate recognition in event request therefor received. After careful consultation here with Ben Cohen and Ginsberg, following letter drafted and sent to the President and Secretary of State:

My dear Mr. President: I have the honor to notify you that the State of Israel has been proclaimed as an independent republic within the frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its Resolution of November 29, 1947, and that the Provisional Government has been charged to assume the rights and duties of government for preserving law and order within the boundaries of Israel, for defending the state against external aggression, and for discharging the obligations of Israel to the other nations of the world in accordance with international law.

The Act of Independence will become effective one minute after six o’clock on the evening of 14 May 1948 Washington time.

With full knowledge of the deep bond of sympathy which has existed and has strengthened over the past thirty years between the Government of the United States and the Jewish people of Palestine, I have been authorized by the Provisional Government of the new State to tender this message and to express the hope that your government will recognize and will welcome Israel into the community of nations.

Very respectfully yours,
/s/ Eliahu Epstein
Agent, Provisional Government of Israel.

  1. Wider consultation and prior notifications were precluded by pledge of secrecy demanded by Clifford.
  2. Earlier during the day Loy Henderson phoned to ascertain boundaries of new State. Advised that boundaries in accordance with U.N Resolution.
  3. Circumstances required that I take title for this act and assume responsibility for sending letter.

Clark Clifford was a strong supporter of the Zionist cause and encouraged Truman to recognize the State of Israel as soon as it was declared. In his memoirs he says that he helped Epstein compose the request for recognition, and that it was he who told Epstein “it was particularly important to claim nothing beyond the boundaries outlined in the UN Resolution”.

Loy Henderson was in the State Department, and had been opposing Truman’s recognition. Now that it was going ahead, he also wanted to make sure that Israel was defining its borders. Epstein gave a more detailed account of the phone call to Max Lowenthal, another Truman adviser. Henderson had asked whether the Jewish State wanted any territory other than was granted in the UN resolution. Epstein replied “No, and any territory taken until peace was achieved would be returned to the Arab state”.

It is clear that Israel would not have been recognized by the US if it had not declared on the Partition Plan borders.

The telegram suggests that Epstein was not able to communicate with the Zionist leadership in Tel Aviv before submitting his letter to Truman. Fortunately, both had made similar decisions: in Tel Aviv to base the Declaration on the Partition Plan; in Washington to define borders according to the Plan.

Israel and Palestine

There was no doubt in the 1948-49 period about the location of Israel’s borders. The text of Epstein’s letter, together with Truman’s response recognizing Israel, was released to the world press in Washington on May 15, 1948. Talknic’s website and my own list several occasions on which Israel publicly acknowledged the existence of these borders. All the states recognizing Israel knew the extent of the territory it was claiming.

The words of the Declaration are intended to suggest that the creation of Israel was authorized by the United Nations. This is not correct. The UN does not have authority under its Charter to create or divide states. The Partition Plan was a recommendation only. The Plan envisaged a process, starting at the end of the Mandate, which would lead to the establishment of two states in a series of parallel stages. Because the Plan was rejected by the Arab side, it could not be implemented.

Israel was created as a sovereign state by the decision of the Zionist leadership to preempt the process envisaged in the Plan, and to declare the State of Israel immediately on termination of the Mandate. The borders specified at that time are its sovereign borders: the borders within which Israel claimed and exercised sovereign authority and on which it was recognized by other states.

It is sometimes asked whether the creation of Israel was legal. The answer is that it was neither legal nor illegal, because there is no system of law governing the creation of states. Israel exists as a sovereign state because it satisfied the requirements of the Montevideo Convention, and was recognized as such by other states.

Israel’s Declaration partitioned the land into two territories: the State of Israel, and the remainder of Palestine outside the sovereign borders of Israel, corresponding to the area of the Arab state in the Partition Plan. Palestine was in a sorry state, with much of its population having become refugees, and it had no government because the Mandate had ended, and there was nothing to replace it. It became a non-self-governing territory.

The Jewish National Home policy of the British Mandate had made it impossible for the Palestinians to exercise their right of self-determination in Mandatory Palestine, as confirmed by the report of the UN Special Committee on Palestine (II.176). But, because Israel’s border definition limited the sovereign extent of the State of Israel to that specified for the Jewish state in the Partition Plan, it also defined the borders of the non-self-governing territory of Palestine, creating the possibility that the Palestinians could exercise that right, the right to their own state, in the territory allocated to the Arab state in the Partition Plan.

Borders can be changed, but a state can only acquire territory from a neighbor by legal annexation, that is, by agreement, and with a referendum of the population. Obtaining territory by war violates fundamental principles of the UN Charter. Nevertheless, this is what Israel did.

Israel expands: the 1948-49 war

Israel was founded in the midst of civil war between Jews and Arabs. At 00:01 on May 15, 1948, when the Declaration became effective, Jewish militias were already fighting outside Israel’s sovereign borders, in the territory of Palestine. That same night, forces of the Arab states entered Palestine, and the civil war became a war between Israel and the Arab States. Knowing the location of Israel’s borders gives a better understanding of the nature of this war. Israel was not invaded by five Arab states. Most of the fighting was in Palestine, outside the borders of Israel, and no Jordanian forces entered Israel. The Arab League told the UN that they were entering Palestine to protect Arabs from Zionist attack: Israel told the UN that its forces were operating in Palestine, outside its borders, in order to protect Jews from Arab attack. The UN did not identify either side as an aggressor.

Having achieved recognition by declaring the partition lines as its border, a few days later, on May 20, the Provisional Government decided that “Israel would not respect the partition lines”. On June 3 Ben-Gurion said, in a report to the Provisional Government, “the entire expanse of the State of Israel allocated to us under the terms of the UN resolution is in our hands, and we have conquered several important districts outside those boundaries… we will remain constantly on the offensive, which will not be confined to the borders of the Jewish State”, thus confirming both the existence of the borders, and his intention to capture territory outside them. As the war progressed Israel continued to gain territory, until the fighting stopped with the Armistices of 1949.

In the captured territory between the partition lines and the armistice lines (see map above), Israel applied Israeli law, rather than a military occupation under the laws of war, making the territory in effect (de facto) part of Israel. The armistice lines (collectively the Green Line) therefore became the de facto border of Israel. Needless to say, this was not a legal annexation, as the armistice agreements themselves make clear: “the Armistice Demarcation Line is not to be construed in any sense as a political or territorial boundary”. Since Israel has no intention of returning this territory, it is rightly called stolen land.

Israel’s sovereign territory amounts to some 55% of Mandatory Palestine, the stolen land another 23%, with the remaining 22% comprising the West Bank and Gaza. The stolen land includes the cities of  Acre, Ashkelon, Jaffa, Nazareth, Ramle, Beersheba, Lydda, and West Jerusalem, all except the last having being allocated to the Arab state in the Partition Plan as they were major Arab population centers.

Under Chapter XI of the UN Charter a “sacred trust” is automatically created when a state (in this case Israel) administers a non-self-governing territory (parts of Palestine). Under this trust the responsibility of Israel in the stolen land was to recognize that “the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount” and to help them “develop self-government and free political institutions”. In other words, to help the Palestinian people achieve their right of self-determination in their own land.

Israel seriously violated this sacred trust. Making the territory part of Israel prevents its people from developing free political institutions and self-government. The refusal to allow Palestinian refugees to return, the destruction of their villages, and their replacement by immigrant Jews, puts the interests of the Palestinian people below those of Jewish immigrants into Palestinian territory.

Chapter XI of the Charter also applies in the West Bank and Gaza, occupied by Israel in 1967. As the administration there is military, it must also obey the Geneva Conventions. Israel has violated those as well.

Palestine’s right to territorial compensation

Nothing has changed the status of the border between Israel and Palestine since 1949, as there has been no peace treaty between the two sides. The partition line is still the declared and recognized sovereign border of Israel. The Green Line is still the de facto border of Israel. And please, everyone, stop calling it the pre-1967 border: it is not a recognized border, and it did not move an inch in 1967. Nor is the territory inside the de facto border ‘Israel proper’. The stolen land is improperly regarded as part of Israel since it was obtained by war in violation of the UN Charter.

Palestine has said that, in the interests of peace, Israel can keep the land stolen in 1948-49. This is a wise decision. The stolen land is fully integrated with the rest of Israel, and this situation is irreversible. It is also a very generous offer. In fact too generous, because Palestine has not even asked for territorial compensation for the loss of much of its heartlands. This is a mistake. Israel has a population of around 8 million. The Palestinian population, including the West Bank, Gaza, and stateless refugees with a right to return, is around 9 million. A peace agreement that left only 22% of Palestine under Palestinian Arab sovereignty could not possibly be considered a viable or just solution which would lead to a lasting peace.

The failure to ask for compensation arises because the Palestinian leadership believes that Israel has never defined its borders. They believe it because it is one of those things that “everyone knows”, and also because their legal adviser has told them that Israel does not have “determinate borders”. Consequently, they do not understand the legal distinction between Israel’s sovereign territory and the stolen land. The same adviser also told them that UN Security Council Resolution 242 “set forth” the boundaries of the Palestinian State. This is another nonsensical fiction. Resolution 242 says nothing about the position of any borders, nor could it, because the UN has no authority to tell a state where its borders are; that is for states to agree between themselves.

I believe that Palestine can make a strong case that, in terms of justice, international law, and viability, it deserves and needs a transfer of territory from Israeli sovereignty in the southern Negev (that is, south of Beersheba, the city itself being within the stolen land). This would achieve three things: provide territorial contiguity between the West Bank and Gaza; provide space for the returning refugees; and enable the Bedouin, if they so wish, to transfer from Israeli sovereignty to Palestinian sovereignty.

This is not a new idea. The Negev was allocated to the Jewish state in the Partition Plan as an area capable of absorbing large numbers of Jewish immigrants, having at the time only a small population of mostly Bedouin. The UN Mediator was the first to suggest, (see his September 1948 Progress Report [One.III.6]), that some of the Negev be transferred to the proposed Arab state, at that time as compensation for the loss of western Galilee. The Arabs, at the failed attempt at a peace conference in Lausanne in 1949 said that they would need the Negev to accommodate the returning refugees, since Israel was not willing to accept them. (See this report of the Conciliation Commission [IV.15]). During the conference President Truman wrote a secret Note to Ben-Gurion deploring Israel’s refusal to provide territorial compensation for areas it had acquired outside the Partition Plan borders.

The expulsion of 750,000 non-Jewish Palestinians and Israel’s de facto enlargement in the 1948-49 war meant that the original reason for allocating the Negev to Israel had become obsolete. Although Israel has been actively developing the Negev for Jewish occupation since 2005, population density is still low. It should be possible to produce a suitable division of territory. To keep contiguous both Israeli and Palestinian territory, there could be a neutral crossing point between the two states, similar to those in the Partition Plan (see them in the attached map, to the south-west of Nazareth and of Ramle).

Negotiation of new borders needs to be handled with respect to the wishes of residents. It would not be legal to transfer people from one sovereignty to another unless the majority of them agreed, and the border lines should be drawn so as to minimize the number of people who consider themselves adversely affected. For example, as far as possible Jewish settlements in the Negev should be kept within Israel. Everyone whose sovereignty is changed should be given dual citizenship

The one-state solution

All this discussion of borders and territories would immediately become irrelevant if there were a one-state solution. I expect this will happen eventually, my own view being that the solution with the greatest chance of success would be a union of the two nations to form a single state, along the lines of the England-Scotland model. But at the moment, the two states already exist, and the only way that they can successfully become one is by a voluntary merger, federation or union. It cannot be voluntary unless the two nations negotiate on an equal basis. So, a one-state solution can only proceed by way of an intermediate two-state solution. The territorial question must be sorted out.

Israel’s deceptions

Israel’s declaration of sovereign borders on May 14, 1948 was a deception practiced upon President Truman and the rest of the world, designed to elicit recognition of Israel. Israel never had an intention to stick to those borders. Since those days, Israel and its Zionist supporters have practiced another deception: that the border definition never happened.

How did such a nonsensical and easily disproved idea become something that “everyone knows”?  And “everyone” includes some surprising people: the historian Avi Shlaim, Professor at Oxford University, said in an interview that “the Armistice Lines are the only internationally recognized borders that Israel ever had”; Francis A. Boyle, Professor of International Law at the University of Illinois is the adviser to the PLO, already mentioned, who said that “Israel does not have determinate borders”; Uri Avnery, veteran Israeli journalist, politician and peace activist, has said that “from its first day, the State of Israel has refused to fix its borders”; Jeremy R. Hammond, editor of Foreign Policy Journal, in his book The Rejection of Palestinian Self Determination (Chapter IV) says, of the creation of Israel, “significantly, no borders for the newly proclaimed state were specified”; John B. Judis, political historian, in his recent book Genesis about Truman, Zionism, and the creation of Israel, discusses the events of May 14, 1948 in Washington (page 317), mentioning that Clifford worked with Epstein on the letter asking for recognition, but shows no knowledge of its content and gives no reference to the text.

Provision of misleading information, such as the article about Israel’s Declaration of Independence discussed above, is one Zionist propaganda technique, but the main one is simple silence and suppression of information.

I may be exaggerating somewhat by describing Epstein’s letter to Truman as “hidden”, since it has been in the public domain since May 15, 1948, but for a document of such historic significance it has a very low profile on the internet. As far as I can determine there is not a single Israel Government or Zionist website which mentions this letter when talking about the foundation of the State of Israel and Truman’s recognition. The full text appears on only three well-known websites: as an unsearchable facsimile of the original in the Truman library; the Avalon project at Yale Law School; and in the Jewish Virtual Library, where it is indexed only as a “Letter from Provisional Government to USA” and nowhere are its contents or significance discussed. Otherwise it appears mostly on blogs, news archives and discussions.

Active suppression also takes place. I have sometimes entered a polite and relevant comment, quoting the first sentence of the letter, into the website Times of Israel, to find that it has quickly been moderated out.

My second document, Epstein’s telegram to Shertok, is both a fascinating piece of history and of great importance since it confirms that the US would not have recognized Israel if it had not defined its borders according to the UN partition lines. This one has really been well hidden. A link to it, as an unsearchable facsimile, first appeared in 2012 in a story on the website of the Israel State Archivist (Document No. 3). Until now, the only other links to it on the internet have been from my own writings, and the only plain text copy of the document on the internet has been on my website.

Summary of conclusions

The Zionist leadership did not want to define the borders of Israel when they declared independence from the rest of Palestine on May 14, 1948, but were forced to specify borders according to the UN Partition Plan in order to achieve recognition by the USA. The territory captured by Israel outside these borders in the 1948-49 war and incorporated de facto into Israel was obtained by war in violation of the fundamental principles of the UN Charter. Since 1949 Israel has attempted, very successfully, to convince the world that this border definition never happened in order to hide the fact that the captured territory is outside Israel’s declared and recognized sovereign borders and is  therefore rightfully part of the territory of Palestine, within which the Palestinian people have the right of self-determination. Although the Palestinian leadership has accepted that Israel can keep this territory in a peace agreement, there is a very strong case for compensation for its loss in the form of a transfer of Israeli territory in the southern Negev to Palestinian sovereignty.

For more details on the topic of this essay please see my website article The Borders of Israel and Palestine.

Requests to readers

Did Ben-Gurion really turn up on the morning of May 14, 1948 with a new version of the Declaration that did not mention the Partition Plan? Or was it actually he who realized overnight that the idea of creating a state with undefined borders was not going to work? The various drafts of the Declaration are said to be on display in Independence Hall in Tel Aviv. Is there an Israeli reader who could go along, take a look and let us know?

How did the Zionists manage to persuade “everyone” that “Israel has never defined its borders”? It would take a major project in social psychology to answer that question fully, but it would be interesting to hear the views and experiences of readers. I will respond to all comments.

David Gerald Fincham

October 23, 2014, 11:22 am

As much pressure as possible should be applied as soon as possible by as many people as possible. My view is that there are two things that Abbas should do immediately.

First, bring a war crimes case at the ICC against all Israeli politicians authorizing the West Bank settlement program, and the military governors implementing it. It is an open and shut case (slam-dunk in American) with no need for investigation or witnesses, it could be over in an afternoon.

Second, get friends at the General Assembly to institute a resolution asking the ICJ for an Advisory Opinion as to whether the incorporation into Israel of land outside its sovereign borders captured in the 1948-49 war violated international law. Another slam-dunk.

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15 thoughts on “Prof. Francis A. Boyle: Hidden documents over true borders of Israel + Palestine!

  1. In June 1967 After 3 days of war with Egypt and Syria. The Arabs told Jordan that they are advancing on Tel-Aviv and that they should join the war.
    Jordan started firing artillery, cannons at Israel and the Jordanian Army fired on Israel from the old city of Jerusalem and other locations.
    Israel contacted Jordan and informed them that if they stop military actions against Israel nothing will happen to them and Israel will not attack them to defend themselves.
    Jordan ignored the numerous warning and continued offensive military actions against Israel and its populations.
    Israel in defense of its country and its people responded in a defensive war and defeated the Jordanian army with heavy losses and liberated Judea and Samaria aka The West Bank and in a stunning victory Israel liberated its 3000 year old ancestral capital Jerusalem.
    Where now every religion can worship in peace without restrictions.
    It is a know fact in International law that in a defensive war – to the conqueror goes the spoils.
    The situation today is of the Arabs own doing.
    In 1987 Jordan officially relinquished all territorial claims to Jerusalem and Judea and Samaria. Just like the Ottoman empire after WW1 officially relinquished all claims to Palestine and other territories conquered by the allied powers.

    Israel – the victors sued for peace and the vanquished Arabs called for unconditional surrender.
    YJ Draiman.

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    • But the bare facts BELIE every single claim you make (straight out of the Hasbara handbook) – because after 1948 and the UN Charter, and as anyone with an inkling of knowledge of International Law will tell you (not just the esteemed expert Prof. Francis Boyle) Israel’s ethnic cleansing, annexation and occupation of Historical Palestine is categorically ILLEGAL – simple as.
      And the fact is that with each passing day, more and more people are getting fed up of Israeli belligerence – funded as usual by others.
      Enough nonsense – respect existence or expect resistance!
      Time to STOP the blind funding and arming of the zionist colonial outpost as it has outlived ANY usefulness it may ever have had.
      Better go home while you can because Israel has NO LEGITIMACY WHATSOEVER.
      Meanwhile, the boycott movement goes from strength to strength, inching ever closer to that critical tipping point … just like what happened with racist, apartheid South Africa.
      If you have a factual bent of mind evaluate this critically:
      | THE KEY TO PEACE: Dismantling the Matrix of Control:
      http://www.merip.org/mero/mero091109

      | Must-Read for a Correct Factual Background …
      http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2010/06/17/top-ten-myths-about-the-israeli-palestinian-conflict/

      | IMPERIAL HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST!
      Who has conquered the Middle east over the course of the world events?
      See 5.000 years of history in just … 90 seconds!!
      http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/imagenes_sociopol/middleeast_maphistory.swf
      http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net

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      • In addition to the comment by YJ Draiman, I add only this: The Arabs living in the Holy Land also agree that there is no “Palestinian Nation” – here are some quotes:
        Already in 1977, a central spokesman of that “second people” (a PLO leader, Zahir Muhsein, head of the as-Sa’iqa Organization) revealed the truth in an interview to the Dutch newspaper Trouw. Here are his words:
        “The Palestinian people do not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the State of Israel for our Arab unity. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of a Palestinian people, since Arab national interests demand that we posit the existence of a distinct ‘Palestinian people’ to oppose Zionism for tactical reasons. Jordan, a sovereign state with defined borders, cannot raise claims to Haifa and Jaffa. As a Palestinian, I can undoubtedly demand Haifa, Jaffa, Beer-Sheva and Jerusalem. However, the moment we reclaim our right to all of Palestine, we will not wait even a minute to unite Palestine and Jordan.”
        In 1974, the late Syrian President, Hafez al-Assad, declared, “It would be fitting for us to mention to the responsible Israeli authorities that we view Palestine not just as an inseparable part of the Arab nation, but also as a part of southern Syria.” In 1987 he reiterated this at a conference in Amman by saying, “A country named ‘Palestine’ has never existed.” Jordan’s King Hussein responded, “The appearance of the national Palestinian persona serves as a response to Israel’s claim that Palestine is Jewish.”
        to Yasir Arafat who, in 1970 with candid simplicity, told the reporter Arianna Palazzi, “The question of borders doesn’t interest us… From the Arab standpoint, we mustn’t talk about borders. Palestine is nothing but a drop in an enormous ocean. Our nation is the Arabic nation that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea and beyond it… The PLO is fighting Israel in the name of Pan-Arabism. What you call ‘Jordan’ is nothing more than Palestine.”

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    • #Vatican officially recognises State of #Palestine, while #Israel fumes!
      Posted on 13 May 2015 by truthaholics
      Vatican officially recognizes Palestine, while Israel fumes ~ RT, May 13, 2015.

      The Vatican has become the latest country to recognize the state of Palestine, after a new treaty was finalized on Wednesday. Unsurprisingly Israel has hit out at the move, saying that it damages prospects for peace in the region.
      #Vatican officially recognises State of #Palestine, while #Israel fumes! http://wp.me/p1xXtb-4ti via @truthrazor

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  2. The Qur’an 17:104 – states the land of Israel belongs to the Jewish people.
    Any building of housing in The Greater Israel is the right and duty of the Israeli government under international laws and treaties. There is no such a thing as occupied territory. It is the liberated land of Israel for over 3,500 years.
    A two-state solution was implemented in 1922
    In violation of the 1920 San Remo treaty and according to the 1920 League of Nations Resolution, two-state solution was implemented in 1922 when British administration of occupied Israel violated international treaty, allocated more than 77% of Israel territory to Arab-Palestinians and created Transjordan (now Jordan) where today over 80 percent of the population identify themselves as Arab-Palestinians. Every party, including UN, EU, US, etc., must respect and honor International treaties and League of Nations Resolutions, adopted those treaties and accepted by UN. Neither the League of Nations Nor the U.N. can assign and or dictate laws or territories of any country, they can only recommend and upon acceptance by both parties as a treaty it becomes valid. Since the Arabs refused time and again into signing a treaty any obligations or acceptance by Israel are null and void. Therefore, all so called Arab “Palestinians” must be relocated there. Enough stealing Israel land. Britain and Jordan and the Arab countries who expelled over a million Jewish families from Arab countries and confiscated their assets and Real estate property 120.440 sq. km. valued today in the trillions of dollars, (majority of those Jewish families expelled from Arab countries settled in Greater Israel) must compensate Israel and its people for stolen land and natural resources. Ref: article “Jewish legal rights to Judea and Samaria” By prominent International Law specialist Ted Belman, Legal Rights and Title of Sovereignty of the Jewish People to the Land of Israel and Palestine under International Law by Howard Grief, and International law expert Julius Stone, and Eugene Rostow, Professor, Judge Stephen M. Schwebel, past President of the ICJ … and agreed that Israel’s rights would be reserved under Article 51 of the UN. and Cambridge Professor Sir Elihu Lauterpacht, Judge ad hoc of the International Court of Justice.
    YJ Draiman

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  3. For Jews, the Temple Mount is the holiest place in the world.
    Following the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon’s Temple, many Jews were sent into exile. However, under the Persian King Cyrus, the Jews were allowed to return and began to rebuild the Temple. The Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE and expanded by King Herod in 19 BCE. In 70 CE, the Roman Empire, led by Emperor Titus, laid siege to Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple. Jews have maintained an unbreakable connection to Jerusalem, and the Temple Mount since that time.

    Today, Jews follow a number of different customs in remembrance of their fallen Temple. When Jews pray, they pray toward Jerusalem. Within the daily liturgy, there are numerous calls for the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the Temple. During the week, after meals, Jews recite a grace, which includes the recitation of Psalm 137 (“If I forget thee, O Jerusalem…”).[5] At the end of a wedding ceremony, the groom breaks a glass, which signifies the Jewish people’s continued mourning over the Temple’s destruction. In addition, many have the custom of leaving a wall in their home unfinished in remembrance of the destruction. All of these customs play a significant part in the Jewish connection to Jerusalem and the Temple Mount, which former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert stated “represents the purist expression of all that Jews prayed for, dreamed of, cried for, and died for in the two thousand years since the destruction of the Second Temple.”[6] In addition to the customs and ideology, the Jewish connection to the Land of Israel and Jerusalem is internationally recognized.[7]

    ISLAMIC LITERATURE AND THE TEMPLE MOUNT

    Classic Islamic literature also recognizes the existence of a Jewish Temple and its importance to Judaism. This makes Arab-Palestinian Temple Denial all the more puzzling.

    In Sura 17:1 of the Koran, the “Farthest Mosque” is called the al-masjid al-Aqsa. The Tafsir al-Jalalayn,[8] a well-respected Sunni exegesis of the Koran from the 15th and 16th centuries, notes that the “Farthest Mosque” is a reference to the Bayt al-Maqdis of Jerusalem.[9] In Hebrew, the Jewish Temple is often referred to as the Beyt Ha-Miqdash, nearly identical to the Arabic term. In the commentary of Abdullah Ibn Omar al-Baydawi, who authored several prominent theological works in the 13th century, the masjid is referred to as the Bayt al-Maqdis because during Muhammad’s time no mosque existed in Jerusalem.[10] Koranic historian and commentator, Abu Jafar Muhammad al-Tabari, who chronicled the seventh century Muslim conquest of Jerusalem, wrote that one day when Umar finished praying, he went to the place where “the Romans buried the Temple [bayt al-maqdis] at the time of the sons of Israel.”[11] In addition, eleventh century historian Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Maqdisi and fourteenth century Iranian religious scholar Hamdallah al-Mustawfi acknowledged that the al-Aqsa Mosque was built on top of Solomon’s Temple.[12]

    This is a small sample of the Islamic literature attesting to the Jewish connection to the Temple Mount. Innumerable other writings from other faiths attest to this fact, as well.
    Link to 1925 Waqf Temple Mount Guide noting that the First and Second Jewish Temples were located on the Temple Mount

    Click to access 1925-wakf-temple-mount-guide.pdf

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    • As long ago as 1998 Edward Said reminded the world that acting as if Palestinians were equally responsible with Israelis for the persisting struggle of the two peoples was not only misleading, but exhibited a fundamental in misunderstanding of the true reality facing the two peoples: “The major task of the American or Palestinian intellectual of the left is to reveal the disparity between the so-called two sides, which appears to be in perfect balance, but are not in fact. To reveal that this is an oppressed and an oppressor, a victim and a victimizer, and unless we recognize that, we’re nowhere.” [interview with Bruce Robbins published in Social Text (1998)]
      Parodies of Parity: Israel & Palestine http://wp.me/p1xXtb-4uV via @truthrazor

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  4. Local Arabs is the description of the Arabs in what was formerly known as the region of Palestine, which is the Land of Israel.
    It is an insult and it is promoting the perpetration of a fraud by calling the local Arabs nothing else than local Arabs. Prior to the mid sixties they were called Arabs all of a sudden they woke up one morning and decided in order to promote their fraud and deception to assume the title the Jews had since the Romans renamed the Land of Israel Palestine and Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina.
    YJ Draiman

    The government of Israel; must stop doing what’s it thinks is politically correct and perform the right action to defend our people with zero tolerance, to eradicate terror and expel the Arabs. There are no innocents. The silent Arab majority is complicit by not objecting to terror and violence. The nations of the world throughout history stood idle while Jews were persecuted and killed.
    When is the Israeli government stopping in deluding itself that the Arab/Palestinians want peace? It is time to face reality and stop wasting time on a façade in the illusion of peace. The Arabs behavior and actions speak volumes, that they do not want peace. When you teach your children to commit terror and violence, honor terrorists and suicide bombers, these are demonic and destructive people look around the world and the terror and violence they are causing; there is no one to talk to.
    Once the Israeli government decides to face reality that there is no second Arab/Palestinian state and that the Arabs do not seek peace, only Israel’s demise. Then you must proceed with a new approach and take care of the people in Israel without appeasing or concessions to the Arabs or the world at large. Past response by the Arabs was and is detrimental to Israel’s and its people.

    As long as you have Arabs living in Greater Israel, terror and violence will never stop. It is in their blood and in their culture. Just look around in the world and see how terror and violence is promoted in the Muslim countries and in the Muslim communities in Europe and elsewhere. They are killing each other by the tens of thousands. When is the world at large going to wake up and face the harsh reality? That terror and violence must be eliminated at all costs like a cancer or we are doomed to extinction. Death to all terrorists must be applied, no exception. When the Arabs Muslims; are teaching their children from infancy to commit terror and violence. There is no alternative but elimination of the terrorists and those who promote and incite the masses to commit terror and violence. The Arabs have an Arab/Palestinian state in Jordan which is over 80% Arab Palestinians. The territory of Jordan is Jewish territory. The Arabs also have the 12 million sq. km. received after WWI, the homes and the over 120,000 sq. km. The Arabs confiscated from the over a million Jewish families expelled from Arab countries who lived there for over 2600 years.

    It is time for Israel to go in with the Army and start taking over Hebron, the second holiest city for Jews. Every terror attack another section of Hebron will be retaken by Israel the rightful owners. Since the 1920’s Hebron has and is a hotbed of terror. It is time to take some serious actions. Arab terror in Hebron against the Jews started in 1517.
    Israel must take back Gush Katif and all the Jewish communities vacated in 2005 by PM Ariel Sharon.

    When you the Arabs teach and train your children to hate and commit terror and violence. There is no one to talk to. The only solution is to expel all the Arabs to Jordan which is Jewish territory or to the homes and 75.000 sq. mi. of territory the Arab countries confiscated when they terrorized and expelled over a million Jewish families from the Arab countries or to the 12 million sq. km the Arabs received after WWI, which excluded Palestine aka “The Land of Israel”. Jews who have lived in those Arab countries for over 2600 years and now live in Israel. On January 1919 King Faisal and Chaim Weizman signed an Agreement that recognized Palestine as the Land of Israel. The Arabs do not belong in Israel. The past has shown that they know only terror and violence. They are killing their own people by the thousands. The Arabs/Muslims killed the Jews in Medina about 1400 years ago, which was a Jewish city going back over 2600 years and took over the city. To date nothing has changed. They want to take over the whole world. Look at what they doing in Syria, Europe and Sweden raping women.

    “In Israel; We have to undue and reverse the decades of nonsense that the peace industry has fermented, which led us to the position where the world thinks we the Jews are occupiers in our own ancestral land. If something is false and it is repeated enough times it becomes sort of common wisdom. We have to undo that.”

    Yj Draiman

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  5. The Effect of the Partition Plan
    Elihu Lauterpacht concludes, correctly that the 1947 partition resolution had no legislative character to vest territorial rights in either Jews or Arabs. Any binding force of it would have had to arise from the principle pacta sunt servanda, that is, from the agreement of the parties concerned to the proposed plan. Such an agreement, however, was frustrated ab initio by the Arab rejection, a rejection underlined by armed invasion of Palestine by the forces of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Saudi Arabia timed for the British withdrawal on May 14, 1948, and aimed at destroying Israel and at ending even the merely hortatory value of the plan
    The State of Israel is thus not legally derived from the partition plan, but rests (as do
    most other states in the world) on assertion of independence by its people and
    government, on the vindication of that independence by arms against assault by other
    states, and on the establishment of orderly government within territory under its
    stable control. At most, as Israel’s Declaration of Independence expressed it, the
    General Assembly resolution was a recognition of the natural and historic right of the
    Jewish people in Palestine. The immediate recognition of Israel by the United States
    and other states was in no way predicated on its creation by the partition resolution,
    nor was its admission in 1949 to membership in the United Nations

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  6. Aboriginal and Indigenous Rights of the Jewish People to their Historical Land of Israel
    “The Jewish people have forged a successful state in their historic ancestral homeland,” said U.S. President Barack Obama in his speech to the U.N. General Assembly on September 21, 2011. This theme of “people” and “historic homeland” has for centuries resonated with most Jews round the world. However, the president’s words were even more welcome, because our own time witnesses an increasingly bitter controversy over the Jewish people’s right to political self-determination in a part of its aboriginal ancestral homeland as the only remaining indigenous people of Palestine, aka Greater Israel. (Read the rest on the link below)
    http://www.unitedstateofisrael.com/page8.php

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    • Instead of pipe dreams and wishful thinking isn’t it time to grow up and emerge from the stone-age?
      The rest of us now live in a post-colonial reality where tribal supremacism is shunned along with all forms of racism and denial of equality of opportunity!
      By feigning innocence you conveniently omit mention of the hidden cost of your colonial ambitions: usurping victimhood from the real victims, ie, those who never migrated and still inhabit the Holy Land, the real, true semites – not the fake ones who despite their ethnic-cleansing now suffer from the highest incidence of skin cancer. Isn’t this poetic justice for insolent usurpers?

      Squatting is ILLEGAL everywhere else, so why is it STILL permitted in Historical Palestine?

      “The Israeli state is the aggressor and the occupier. The Palestinians are the victims. So who should recognize whom?” —Khaled Meshal
      http://www.ottomanpalestine.com/

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