The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict.
Show1846-1947: Kashmir before 1947
Show1947: Kashmir Unrest and Accession
Show1948-1957: Plebiscite Conundrum
Show1963 – 1987: Rise of Kashmiri Nationalism
Hide1987 – Now: Kashmir Insurgency
- 1987: Farooq Abdullah wins the elections. The Muslim United Front (MUF) accuses that the elections have been rigged. The insurgency in the valley increases in momentum from this point on, given the consistent failure of democracy and limited employment opportunities. The MUF candidate Mohammad Yousuf Shah is not only cheated in the rigged elections, but also imprisoned and he would later become Syed Salahuddin, chief of militant outfit Hizb-ul-Mujahedin. His election aides called the HAJY group – Abdul Hamid Shaikh, Ashfaq Majid Wani, Javed Ahmed Mir and Mohammed Yasin Malik – would join the JKLF. Amanullah Khan takes refuge in Pakistan, after being deported from England and begins to direct operations across the LoC. Young disaffected Kashmiris in the Valley such as the HAJY group are recruited by JKLF.
- 1988: Protests begin in the Valley along with anti-India demonstrations, followed by police firing and curfew.
- 1989: End of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan releases a great deal of militant energy and weapons to Kashmir. Pakistan provides arms and training to both indigenous and foreign militants in Kashmir, thus adding fuel to the smouldering fire of discontent in the valley.
- 1990: In January, Jagmohan is appointed as the Governor. Farooq Abdullah resigns. On 20 January, an estimated 100 people are killed when a large group of unarmed protesters are fired upon by the Indian troops at the Gawakadal bridge. With this incident, it becomes an insurgency of the entire population. On March 1, an estimated one million take to the streets and more than forty people are killed in police firing. On 13 February, Lassa Kaul, director of Srinagar Doordarshan, is killed by the militants for implementing pro-Indian media policy. Though the JKLF tries to explain that the killings of Pandits were not communal, the murders cause a scare among the minority Hindu community. The rise of new militant groups, some warnings in anonymous posters and some unexplained killings of innocent members of the community contribute to an atmosphere of insecurity for the Kashmiri Pandits. Joint reconciliation efforts by members from both Muslim and Pandit communities are actively discouraged by Jagmohan. Most of the estimated 162,500 Hindus in the Valley, including the entire Kashmiri Pandit community, flee the Valley in March.
- 1990 and after: An officially estimated 10,000 desperate Kashmiri youth cross-over to Pakistan for training and procurement of arms. Indigenous and foreign militant groups besides pro-India renegade militants proliferate through the 1990s with an estimated half a million Indian security forces deployed in the Kashmir Valley since the 1990s with increasing violence and human right violations by all sides leading to tens of thousands of civilian casualties.
- 1999: Kargil War
- October 2001: Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar attacked (38 people dead).
- December 2001: Attack on Indian parliament in New Delhi.
- May 2, 2003: India and Pakistan restore diplomatic ties.
- September 24, 2004: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly.
- July 2006 : Second round of Indo-Pakistani peace talks.
- Feb, 2007 : Samjhauta Express firebombed, 67 killed
- June 2010: Following the killing of a young Kashmiri Tufail Ahmad Mattoo, protest demonstrations continue in Kashmir for months.
- June 2011: September – Indian forces kill three Pakistani soldiers in firing across the Line of Control. India accuses Pakistan of opening fire first.
- June 2012: August – The Chief Minister of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, Omar Abdullah, says that the security situation there is not yet conducive to the revoking of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in the state.
- June 2012: September – Indian President Pranab Mukherjee visits Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir within two months of taking up office. Despite the threat of protests from separatists, seeInsurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, the visit passes off without serious incident.
2010 Kashmir unrest
The 2010 Kashmir unrest was a series of protests in the Muslim majority Kashmir Valley in Indian Administered Kashmir which started in June 2010 after the Indian Army killed three Pakistani “infiltrators”. The protests occurred in a movement was launched by Hurriyat Conference led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Mirwaiz Umar Farooq in Indian Administered Kashmir in June 2010, who called for the complete demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir. The All Parties Hurriyat Conference made this call to protest, citing human rights abuses by Indian troops. Protesters shouting pro-independence slogans, defied curfew, attacked security forces with stones and burnt police vehicles and government buildings. The protests started out as anti India protests but later were also targeted against theUnited States following the 2010 Qur’an-burning controversy. The Jammu and Kashmir Police and Indian Para-military forces fired live ammunition on the protesters, resulting in 112 deaths, including many teenagers and an 11 year old boy. The protests subsided after the Indian government announced a package of measures aimed at defusing the tensions in September 2010.
Source: Indian/Pakistani Government Censuses
Scenario one: The status quoKashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for more than 50 years. Currently a boundary – the Line of Control – divides the region in two, with one part administered by India and one by Pakistan. India would like to formalise this status quo and make it the accepted international boundary. But Pakistan and Kashmiri activists reject this plan because they both want greater control over the region.
In 1947-8 India and Pakistan fought their first war over Jammu and Kashmir. Under United Nations’ supervision, they agreed to a ceasefire along a line which left one-third of the state – comprising what Pakistan calls Azad Jammu and Kashmir, and the Northern Areas administered by Pakistan and two-thirds, Jammu, Ladakh and the Kashmir Valley, administered by India.
In 1972, under the terms of the Simla agreement, the ceasefire line was renamed the Line of Control.
Although India claims that the entire state is part of India, it has been prepared to accept the Line of Control as the international border, with some possible modifications. Both the US and the UK have also favoured turning the Line of Control into an internationally-recognised frontier.
But Pakistan has consistently refused to accept the Line of Control as the border since the predominantly Muslim Kashmir Valley would remain as part of India. Formalising the status quo also does not take account of the aspirations of those Kashmiris who have been fighting since 1989 for independence for the whole or part of the state.
- | India’s draconian message to Kashmir: the noose can extend beyond the gallows! (truthaholics.wordpress.com)
- India asked to return body of Maqbool Butt – The News International (thenews.com.pk)
- Afzal’s execution ignites a renewed disillusionment for many Kashmiris (ibnlive.in.com)
- The Hanging of Afzal Guru: How an Execution is Roiling Kashmir (world.time.com)
- Indian Leadership Pandering to Separatists (ireport.cnn.com)
- Kashmir’s tale of two executions (thehindu.com)
- Whose Kashmir Pakistan’s? 2 (ramanan50.wordpress.com)
- A rare interview of Afzal Guru in Tihar Jail – And I was condemned to death #deathpenalty #Kashmir (kractivist.wordpress.com)
- Strict curfew imposed in most of Indian-controlled Kashmir (dawn.com)